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Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-I protein Tax is well known as a transcriptional transactivator and inducer of cellular transformation. However, it is also known that extracellular Tax induces the production and release of(More)
Brucella abortus is the etiologic agent of bovine brucellosis and causes a chronic disease in humans known as undulant fever. In livestock the disease is characterized by abortion and sterility. Live, attenuated vaccines such as S19 and RB51 have been used to control the spread of the disease in animals; however, they are considered unsafe for human use and(More)
Retroviral infection is associated with a number of pathologic abnormalities, including a variety of cancers, immunologic diseases, and neurologic disorders. Shortly after its discovery in 1980, human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was found to be the etiologic agent of both adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical(More)
The human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax interacts with numerous cellular pathways promoting both the survival and pathogenesis of the virus in the human population. Tax has been studied extensively with respect to its role in transcriptional transactivation and its involvement in the up-regulation of a number of cellular genes during(More)
Differentially expressed and immunogenic spore proteins of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis, were identified. Comparative proteomic profiling of their spore proteins distinguished the three species from each other as well as the virulent from the avirulent strains. A total(More)
Duck enteritis virus (DEV), a herpesvirus, is the causative agent of duck viral enteritis in free-flying, feral, and domesticated members of the Anatidae family. HindIII-digested DEV DNA was cloned into the plasmid pBluescript, and a 1.95-kb fragment was sequenced. This fragment codes for the 3' region of the DEV homologues of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)(More)
Human T cell lymphotropic/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) has been identified as the causative agent of both adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the exact sequence of events that occur during the early stages of infection are not known in detail, the initial route of infection may(More)
Genetically inactivated, Gram-negative bacteria that express malaria vaccine candidates represent a promising novel self-adjuvanting vaccine approach. Antigens expressed on particulate bacterial carriers not only target directly to antigen-presenting cells but also provide a strong danger signal thus circumventing the requirement for potent extraneous(More)
Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-I transactivator protein Tax plays an integral role in the etiology of adult T cell leukemia, as expression of Tax in T lymphocytes has been shown to result in immortalization. In addition, Tax(More)
Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of a number of pathologic abnormalities, including adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The viral oncoprotein Tax has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Recently, cell-free Tax was detected in the(More)