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The property of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases to catalyze 3'-P--O bond cleavage and the insertion of a single nonexchangeable atom of 18O from [18O]water into the phosphoryl of the 5'-nucleotide product has been utilized as a means for measuring the hydrolytic flux of cGMP and cAMP in isolated dark-adapted intact rabbit retinas. Without illumination(More)
CD38 is a 42-kilodalton glycoprotein expressed extensively on B and T lymphocytes. CD38 exhibits a structural homology to Aplysia adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyl cyclase. This enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) with calcium-mobilizing activity. A complementary DNA(More)
ADP-ribosyl cyclase catalyzes the cyclization of NAD+ to produce cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), which is emerging as an endogenous regulator of the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release mechanism in cells. CD38 is a lymphocyte differentiation antigen which has recently been shown to be a bifunctional enzyme that can synthesize cADPR from NAD+ as well as hydrolyze cADPR(More)
Given the rapid turnover of connexin proteins, gap junction (GJ) assembly represents an important means of regulating the extent of GJ communication between cells. This report describes an increase in the level of GJ assembly within one hour following treatment with cAMP-elevating reagents or low density lipoprotein (LDL). Dye transfer methods and(More)
Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is an agonist-generated second messenger that releases Ca(2+) from intracellular acidic Ca(2+) stores. Recent evidence has identified the two-pore channels (TPCs) within the endolysosomal system as NAADP-regulated Ca(2+) channels that release organellar Ca(2+) in response to NAADP. However, little is(More)
Inositol trisphosphate (IP3) was previously shown to release Ca2+ from a nonmitochondrial store in sea urchin eggs. In this study, egg homogenates and purified microsomes were monitored with either fura 2 or Ca2+-sensitive minielectrodes to determine whether other stimuli would induce Ca2+ release. Pyridine nucleotides (whose concentrations are known to(More)
Incubation of NAD+ with extracts from sea urchin eggs resulted in production of a metabolite which could mobilize intracellular Ca2+ stores of the eggs. In this study we present structural evidence indicating that the metabolite is a cyclized ADP-ribose having an N-glycosyl linkage between the anomeric carbon of the terminal ribose unit and the N6-amino(More)
Fertilization is accompanied by a transient increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+, which serves as a signal for initiating development. Some of the Ca2+ appears to be released from intracellular stores by the binding of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) to its receptor. However, in sea urchin eggs, other mechanisms appear to participate. Cyclic(More)
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are critically important mediators of many signal-transduction systems. Several important sites regulating stimulus-secretion coupling and release of insulin from pancreatic beta-cells are modulated by G proteins. Gs mediates increases in intracellular cAMP associated with hormone-induced stimulation of(More)
1. The sea urchin egg homogenate is an ideal model to characterize Ca2+-release mechanisms because of its reliability and high signal-to-noise-ratio. Apart from the InsP3- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+-release mechanisms, it has been recently demonstrated that this model is responsive to a third independent mechanism, that has the pyridine nucleotide,(More)