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We sequenced the 29,751-base genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus known as the Tor2 isolate. The genome sequence reveals that this coronavirus is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses, including two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins(More)
BACKGROUND Filoviruses, including Ebola virus, are unusual in being filamentous animal viruses. Structural data on the arrangement, stoichiometry and organisation of the component molecules of filoviruses has until now been lacking, partially due to the need to work under level 4 biological containment. The present study provides unique insights into the(More)
Discrepancy in synaptic structural plasticity is one of the earliest manifestations of the neurodegenerative state. In prion diseases, a reduction in synapses and dendritic spine densities is observed during preclinical disease in neurons of the cortex and hippocampus. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these alterations have not been identified but(More)
The three-dimensional structure of expressed VP2 capsids of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus strain G (ADVG-VP2) has been determined to 22 A resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction techniques. A structure-based sequence alignment of the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) provided a means to construct an atomic model of the(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by a risk of nosocomial transmission; however, the risk of airborne transmission of SARS is unknown. During the Toronto outbreaks of SARS, we investigated environmental contamination in SARS units, by employing novel air sampling and conventional surface swabbing. Two polymerase chain reaction(More)
When the viral proteins VP3 and VP7 of bluetongue virus (BTV) are expressed simultaneously in the baculovirus system, core-like particles form spontaneously. The 3-D structure of these core-like particles, determined from cryo-electron micrographs, reveals an icosahedral structure 72.5 nm in diameter with 200 triangular spikes arranged on a T = 13,I(More)
We have determined the structure of the core capsid of an unusual variant of hepatitis B virus, genotype G (HBV/G) at 14Å resolution, using cryo-electron microscopy. The structure reveals surface features not present in the prototype HBV/A genotype. HBV/G is novel in that it has a unique 36-bp insertion downstream of the core gene start codon. This results(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile are gram-positive, spore forming anaerobic bacteria that are the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea, usually associated with antibiotic usage. Metronidazole is currently the first-line treatment for mild to moderate C. difficile diarrhea however recurrence occurs at rates of 15-35%. There are few reports of C.(More)
BACKGROUND 9b is an accessory protein of the SARS-CoV. It is a small protein of 98 amino acids and its structure has been solved recently. 9b is known to localize in the extra-nuclear region and has been postulated to possess a nuclear export signal (NES), however the role of NES in 9b functioning is not well understood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/METHODOLOGY In(More)