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We sequenced the 29,751-base genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus known as the Tor2 isolate. The genome sequence reveals that this coronavirus is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses, including two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins(More)
Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE; EC 3.1.1.1), which is intrinsically involved in regulation of development of some insect larvae, is rapidly removed from the hemolymph by the pericardial cells. Lys-29 and Lys-524, which are implicated in the degradation of JHE, were mutated to Arg. Neither the half-life of the modified JHE in the hemolymph nor the catalytic(More)
The organization and ultrastructure of the accessory glands of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, are described. The glands consist of two groups of acinar cells situated on either side of Gene's organ. A single acinus consists of from eight to 12 cells and each cell is connected via an individual duct to pores on the dorsal surface of the mouthparts.(More)
Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) is unique among the double-stranded RNA viruses of the family Reoviridae in having a single capsid layer. Analysis by cryo-electron microscopy allows comparison of the single shelled CPV and orthoreovirus with the high resolution crystal structure of the inner shell of the bluetongue virus (BTV) core. This suggests that(More)
The ultrastructures of the retractor muscles of Gené's organs in the cattle ticksBoophilus microplus andAmblyomma variegatum are described. The innervation, neuromuscular junctions, and insertions of the muscles are also described. The retractor muscles are important in controlling the actions of Gené's organ, the egg waxing organ in ticks, during(More)
Recently the insect baculovirus Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) has been effectively adapted as a highly efficient vector in insect cells for the expression of various genes. A cDNA sequence of RNA segment 9 of bluetongue virus serotype 10 (BTV-10, an orbivirus member of the Reoviridae family) encoding a minor core protein (VP6)(More)
Virus-specific tubules are characteristic of orbivirus infections and are likely to play an important role in virus morphogenesis. It has been shown that for bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype orbivirus in the family Reoviridae, the virus-encoded NS1 protein forms tubules in insect cells when the BTV segment M6 gene is expressed by using a baculovirus(More)
We have studied the structure and morphogenesis of Dugbe (DUG) virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) in cultured porcine kidney (PS) cells and a tick cell line (Ra 243) using immunogold electron microscopy. DUG virus is a tickborne arbovirus, considered to be a low health hazard, that is antigenically and genetically related to Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever(More)
Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, of unknown function, found in a number of tissues throughout the body, including several blood components of which platelets constitute the largest reservoir in humans. It is widely believed that a misfolded, protease-resistant form of PrP(C), PrP(Sc), is responsible for(More)
When the viral proteins VP3 and VP7 of bluetongue virus (BTV) are expressed simultaneously in the baculovirus system, core-like particles form spontaneously. The 3-D structure of these core-like particles, determined from cryo-electron micrographs, reveals an icosahedral structure 72.5 nm in diameter with 200 triangular spikes arranged on a T = 13,I(More)