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Rats were exposed to 15 min of restraint or footshock or forced running in an activity wheel once a day for 10 days. Control groups were handled only. On the 11th day, rats from each stressor group and controls were exposed to 15 min of one stressor in a crossed design such that all combinations of one chronic stressor and one acute stressor were performed.(More)
The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the utility of a water maze for testing performance in nonfood-restricted rats. Water maze performance was compared to performance in a food-rewarded (food) maze. Separate groups of rats were given single daily trials of 34 days in one of two mazes. The path through each maze was identical; in fact, the same(More)
tropic functions of TNF-␣ determine distinct IKK␤-dependent hepa-tocellular fates in response to LPS. influences morbidity and mortality during the course of endotoxemia. However, the complex pleiotropic functions of TNF-␣ remain poorly understood. We evaluated how hepatic induction of NF-␬B and TNF-␣ influence survival and hepatocellular death in a lethal(More)
The effects of atropine sulfate pretreatment on pituitary indices of stress response were examined. Pituitary cyclic AMP and plasma prolactin increases following 15 min of acute stress were used as measures of stress response. Over a range of doses (0, 5, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg), pretreatment with atropine sulfate increased the measured stress responses to(More)
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