Timothy Edward Bates

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Nitric oxide and other reactive nitrogen species appear to play several crucial roles in the brain. These include physiological processes such as neuromodulation, neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, and pathological processes such as neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. There is increasing evidence that glial cells in the central nervous system(More)
It is becoming increasingly evident that the mitochondrial genome may play a key role in neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondrial dysfunction is characteristic of several neurodegenerative disorders, and evidence for mitochondria being a site of damage in neurodegenerative disorders is partially based on decreases in respiratory chain complex activities in(More)
Changes in glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and/or redox status have been suggested to mediate the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) that follows exposure to oxidizing agents such as ethanol. Here we report the effects of ethanol administration to rats at intracellular levels of GSH, GSSG, HSP70, and protein carbonyls in brain(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is hypothesized to play a role in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Increased levels of NO metabolites have been found in patients with MS. Peroxynitrite, generated by the reaction of NO with superoxide at sites of inflammation, is a strong oxidant capable of damaging tissues and cells. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is(More)
The ability of a cell to counteract stressful conditions, known as cellular stress response, requires the activation of pro-survival pathways and the production of molecules with anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic activities. Among the cellular pathways conferring protection against oxidative stress, a key role is played by vitagenes, which(More)
Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the severe connective tissue damage present in several photodermatologic disorders, including drug-induced phototoxicity, porphyrias and photoaging. Oxidative stress has been shown to alter the expression of mammalian antioxidant enzymes and to enhance numerous transcription factors,(More)
Invasion and metastasis of certain tumors are accompanied by increased mRNA protein levels and enzymatic activity of cathepsin L. Cathepsin L has also been suggested to play a role in the proteolytic cascades associated with apoptosis. To investigate the role of cathepsin L in brain tumor invasion and apoptosis, the human glioma cell line, IPTP, was stably(More)
The predominant molecular symptom of aging is the accumulation of altered gene products. Moreover, several conditions including protein, lipid or glucose oxidation disrupt redox homeostasis and lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the aging brain. Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases or Friedreich ataxia are neurological diseases(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by severe cognitive impairment that ultimately leads to death. Current drugs used in AD are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and antagonists to the NMDA receptors. These drugs may only slightly improve cognitive functions but have only very limited impact on the clinical(More)
Time-lapse microscopy of human lung cancer (H460) cells showed that the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (AEA), the phyto-cannabinoid Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a synthetic cannabinoid HU 210 all caused morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Janus green assays of H460 cell viability showed that AEA and THC caused significant(More)