Timothy E. Machonkin

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PcpA is an aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenase that is homologous to the well-characterized Fe(II)-dependent catechol extradiol dioxygenases. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone in the catabolism of pentachlorophenol by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723. (1)H NMR and steady-state kinetics were used to determine the(More)
2,6-Dichlorohydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase (PcpA) from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 39723 is a member of a class of Fe(II)-containing hydroquinone dioxygenases that is involved in the mineralization of the pollutant pentachlorophenol. This enzyme has not been extensively characterized, despite its interesting ring-cleaving activity and use of Fe(II),(More)
Ceruloplasmin is unique among the multicopper oxidases in that in addition to the usual copper stoichiometry of one Type 1 copper site and a Type 2/Type 3 trinuclear copper cluster, it contains two other Type 1 sites. This assignment of copper sites, based on copper quantitation, sequence alignment, and crystallography, is difficult to reconcile with the(More)
Fet3p is a multicopper oxidase recently isolated from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fet3p is functionally homologous to ceruloplasmin (Cp) in that both are ferroxidases. However, by sequence homology Fet3p is more similar to fungal laccase, and both contain a type 1 Cu site that lacks the axial methionine ligand present in the functional type 1 sites(More)
Oxidized human [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin has a notably slow electronic relaxation rate, which precludes the observation of signals from nuclei near the iron-sulfur cluster by conventional 2D or 3D methods that utilize proton detection. We have demonstrated the utility of (13)C[(13)C]CT-COSY in identifying connectivity information from fast relaxing carbon nuclei(More)
The rubredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum (CpRd) provides an excellent system for investigating how the protein sequence modulates the reduction potential of the active site in an iron-sulfur protein. (15)N NMR spectroscopy has allowed us to determine with unprecedented accuracy the strengths of all six key hydrogen bonds between protein backbone amides(More)
NMR studies of paramagnetic proteins are hampered by the rapid relaxation of nuclei near the paramagnetic center, which prevents the application of conventional methods to investigations of the most interesting regions of such molecules. This problem is particularly acute in systems with slow electronic relaxation rates. We present a strategy that can be(More)
Stable isotope-labeling methods, coupled with novel techniques for detecting fast-relaxing NMR signals, now permit detailed investigations of paramagnetic centers of metalloproteins. We have utilized these advances to carry out comprehensive assignments of the hyperfine-shifted (13)C and (15)N signals of the rubredoxin from Clostridium pasteurianum (CpRd)(More)
Paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy has been underutilized in the study of metalloproteins. One difficulty of the technique is that paramagnetic relaxation broadens signals from nuclei near paramagnetic centers. In systems with low electronic relaxation rates, this makes such signals difficult to observe or impossible to assign by traditional methods. We show how(More)
Understanding the structural origins of differences in reduction potentials is crucial to understanding how various electron transfer proteins modulate their reduction potentials and how they evolve for diverse functional roles. Here, the high-resolution structures of several Clostridium pasteurianum rubredoxin (Cp Rd) variants with changes in the vicinity(More)