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The metabolic capability for the complete oxidation of glucose, i.e. aerobic glycolysis, is highly developed in the brains of neurologically mature (precocial) species at birth, whereas this activity is severely limited in the brains of neurologically immature (non-precocial) species such as the rat and human. The latter utilize a mixture of glucose and(More)
We report the isolation, by RT-PCR, of partial cDNAs encoding the rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms PPAR alpha, PPAR beta, and PPAR gamma and the rat retinoid X receptor (RXR) isoforms RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma. These cDNAs were used to generate antisense RNA probes to permit analysis, by the highly sensitive and(More)
Krüppel-like transcription factors (Klfs) modulate fundamental cell processes. Cardiac myocytes are terminally-differentiated, but hypertrophy in response to stimuli such as endothelin-1. H2O2 or cytokines promote myocyte apoptosis. Microarray studies of neonatal rat myocytes identified several Klfs as endothelin-1-responsive genes. We used quantitative PCR(More)
We report the isolation of cDNA clones encoding the somatic form of the E1 alpha subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of rat. The deduced amino acid sequence has 99.5, 98, and 97% identity, respectively, with the orthologous proteins of mouse, human, and pig and 98.5% identity with a rat E1 alpha sequence reported previously. The cDNAs isolated in(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelin-1 stimulates Gq protein-coupled receptors to promote proliferation in dividing cells or hypertrophy in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, endothelin-1 rapidly (within minutes) stimulates protein kinase signaling, including extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2; though not ERK5), with(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with changes in gene expression. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and RhoA [activated by hypertrophic agonists (e.g. endothelin-1)] regulate gene expression and are implicated in the response, but their relative significance in regulating the cardiomyocyte transcriptome is unknown. Our(More)
The nuclear Dbf2-related protein kinases 1 and 2 (NDR1/2) are closely-related AGC family kinases that are strongly conserved through evolution. In mammals, they are activated inter alia by phosphorylation of an hydrophobic domain threonine-residue [NDR1(Thr-444)/NDR2(Thr-442)] by an extrinsic protein kinase followed by autophosphorylation of a catalytic(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in cellular phenotype result from underlying changes in mRNA transcription and translation. Endothelin-1 stimulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy with associated changes in mRNA/protein expression and an increase in the rate of protein synthesis. Insulin also increases the rate of translation but does not promote overt cardiomyocyte(More)
We have previously identified cerebellum to contain significantly higher levels, compared with other brain regions, of the mRNA encoding the key ketogenic enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mHS). In this report, we extend these observations, using primary cultures of cerebellar astrocytes and cerebellar granule neurons, and show(More)
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