Timothy E. Cullingford

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Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are NADPH-dependent flavoenzymes that catalyze the oxidation of heteroatom centers in numerous drugs and xenobiotics. FMO2, or "pulmonary" FMO, one of five forms of the enzyme identified in mammals, is expressed predominantly in lung and differs from other FMOs in that it can catalyze the N-oxidation of certain(More)
We have previously described the isolation and sequencing of cDNA clones encoding flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) 1 and 4 of man [Dolphin, C., Shephard, E. A., Povey, S., Palmer, C. N. A., Ziegler, D. M., Ayesh, R., Smith, R. L. & Phillips, I. R. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 12379-12385; Dolphin, C., Shephard E. A., Povey, S., Smith, R. L. & Phillips,(More)
We analysed the structure of the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster in a family of related white mutants. The white-one mutant has bleach white eyes, and a Doc transposable element is inserted into the promoter region of the white locus. The DNA sequence of this Doc insertion was determined, and showed it to be closely related to other Drosophila(More)
We report the isolation, by RT-PCR, of partial cDNAs encoding the rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms PPAR alpha, PPAR beta, and PPAR gamma and the rat retinoid X receptor (RXR) isoforms RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma. These cDNAs were used to generate antisense RNA probes to permit analysis, by the highly sensitive and(More)
This review outlines the molecular sensors that reprogram cellular metabolism in response to the ketogenic diet (KD). Special emphasis is placed on the fasting-, fatty acid- and drug-activated transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). The KD causes a switch to ketogenesis that is coordinated with an array of changes(More)
Endothelin-1 stimulates Gq protein-coupled receptors to promote proliferation in dividing cells or hypertrophy in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, endothelin-1 rapidly (within minutes) stimulates protein kinase signaling, including extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2; though not ERK5), with phenotypic/physiological(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with changes in gene expression. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and RhoA [activated by hypertrophic agonists (e.g. endothelin-1)] regulate gene expression and are implicated in the response, but their relative significance in regulating the cardiomyocyte transcriptome is unknown. Our(More)
Activated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) protects against the cellular inflammatory response, and is central to fatty acid-mediated upregulation of the gene encoding the key ketogenic enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mHS). We have previously demonstrated both PPAR alpha and mHS expression in brain,(More)
Cardiac myocyte death, whether through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms, is a contributing factor to many cardiac pathologies. Although necrosis and apoptosis are the widely accepted forms of cell death, they may utilize the same cell death machinery. The environment within the cell probably dictates the final outcome, producing a spectrum of response(More)
The metabolic capability for the complete oxidation of glucose, i.e. aerobic glycolysis, is highly developed in the brains of neurologically mature (precocial) species at birth, whereas this activity is severely limited in the brains of neurologically immature (non-precocial) species such as the rat and human. The latter utilize a mixture of glucose and(More)