Timothy David Swartz

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Leptin targets specific receptors (OB-R) expressed in the hypothalamus to regulate energy balance. Leptin decreases food intake in normal weight individuals, but this effect is blunted in obese subjects who are characterized by a state of leptin resistance. The prevention of leptin resistance is one of the major goals of obesity research. Recently, we(More)
Deficits in satiation signals are strongly suspected of accompanying obesity and contributing to its pathogenesis in both humans and rats. One such satiation signal is cholecystokinin (CCK), whose effects on food intake are diminished in animals adapted to a high fat diet. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that diet-induced obese prone (OP) rats(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Diet-induced obesity (DIO) is an excellent model for examining human obesity comprising both genotypic and environmental (diet) factors. Decreased responsiveness to peripheral satiety signaling may be responsible for the hyperphagia in this model. In this study, we investigated responses to nutrient-induced satiation in outbred DIO and(More)
Germ-free (GF) mice lacking intestinal microbiota are significantly leaner than normal (NORM) control mice despite consuming more calories. The contribution of microbiota on the recognition and intake of fats is not known. Thus, we investigated the preference for, and acceptance of, fat emulsions in GF and NORM mice, and associated changes in lingual and(More)
Previous work has shown that blockade of NMDAR by non-competitive (MK-801) and competitive (AP5) antagonists increase food intake by acting in the dorsal hindbrain. NMDAR are heteromeric complexes composed of NR1, NR2 and NR3 subunits. Competitive NR2B antagonists potently increase feeding when injected into the hindbrain. NR2 immunoreactivity is present in(More)
CCK-1 receptor deficient Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats are hyperphagic, which leads to subsequent obesity and diabetes. Additionally, they have increased sham intake and enhanced preference for sucrose solutions relative to control, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. To determine the effects of oil on ingestion, we first measured real(More)
The ability to "see" both incoming and circulating nutrients plays an essential role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. As such, nutrient-sensing mechanisms in both the gastrointestinal tract and the brain have been implicated in the regulation of energy intake and glucose homeostasis. The intestinal wall is able to differentiate individual nutrients(More)
We have previously shown that blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the caudal brain stem delays satiation and increases food intake. NMDA receptors are heterodimers made up of distinct, but different, ion channel subunits. The NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor contain the binding site for glutamate. About half of vagal afferents express(More)
Adult rats chronically fed a high-fat (HF) diet maintain reduced sensitivity to cholecystokinin (CCK). We hypothesized that, similar to adult rats, pups fed a HF diet would also exhibit reduced sensitivity to CCK. To test this, male pups fed low-fat (LF) and HF isoenergetic (16.2 kJ/g) diets were administered CCK intraperitoneally (0.125-1 microg/kg) 1 wk(More)
The gut microbiota is implicated in host metabolism and energy regulation. Germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice display decreased adiposity, an effect associated with increased intestinal fasting-induced adipose factor (FIAF) and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. However, whether the altered metabolism observed in the absence of gut microbiota extends to other species,(More)