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Stressful social conditions, such as isolation, that occur during sensitive developmental periods may alter present and future social behavior. Changes in the neuroendocrine mechanisms closely associated with affiliative behaviors and stress reactivity are likely to underlie these changes in behavior. In the present study, we assessed the effects of(More)
The onset of parental behavior has profound and enduring effects on behavior and neurobiology across a variety of species. In some cases, mere exposure to a foster neonate (and a subsequent parental response) can have similar effects. In the present experiment, we exposed adult male and female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) to two foster pups for 20(More)
Visual pattern processing becomes increasingly complex along the ventral pathway, from the low-level coding of local orientation in the primary visual cortex to the high-level coding of face identity in temporal visual areas. Previous research using pattern aftereffects as a psychophysical tool to measure activation of adaptive feature coding has suggested(More)
Many species, including humans, display group behavior. Thus, perceiving crowds may be important for social interaction and survival. Here, we provide the first evidence that humans use ensemble-coding mechanisms to perceive the behavior of a crowd of people with surprisingly high sensitivity. Observers estimated the headings of briefly presented crowds of(More)
High-level visual neurons in the ventral stream typically have large receptive fields, supporting position-invariant object recognition but entailing poor spatial resolution. Consequently, when multiple objects fall within their large receptive fields, unless selective attention is deployed, their responses are averages of responses to the individual(More)
It is well established that social environment, particularly isolation, has a significant impact on social behaviors and neuroendocrine responses. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) expression in limbic structures and associated nuclei is related to the display of social behaviors. We hypothesized that the stress of isolation would cause changes in the(More)
How does internal processing contribute to visual pattern perception? By modeling visual search performance, we estimated internal signal and noise relevant to perception of curvature, a basic feature important for encoding of three-dimensional surfaces and objects. We used isolated, sparse, crowded, and face contexts to determine how internal curvature(More)
Unconscious processing of stimuli with emotional content can bias affective judgments. Is this subliminal affective priming merely a transient phenomenon manifested in fleeting perceptual changes, or are long-lasting effects also induced? To address this question, we investigated memory for surprise faces 24 h after they had been shown with 30-ms fearful,(More)
Although local interactions involving orientation and spatial frequency are well understood, less is known about spatial interactions involving higher level pattern features. We examined interactive coding of aspect ratio, a prevalent two-dimensional feature. We measured perception of two simultaneously flashed ellipses by randomly post-cueing one of them(More)
In vision, humans use summary statistics (e.g., the average facial expression of a crowd) to efficiently perceive the gist of groups of features. Here, we present direct evidence that ensemble coding is also important for auditory processing. We found that listeners could accurately estimate the mean frequency of a set of logarithmically spaced pure tones(More)