Timothy D. Smith

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The imprints of domestication and breed development on the genomes of livestock likely differ from those of companion animals. A deep draft sequence assembly of shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sequences sampled from six additional breeds were used to develop probes to interrogate 37,470 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in(More)
To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
The consistent and unambiguous description of sequence variants is essential to report and exchange information on the analysis of a genome. In particular, DNA diagnostics critically depends on accurate and standardized description and sharing of the variants detected. The sequence variant nomenclature system proposed in 2000 by the Human Genome Variation(More)
The terms "microsmatic" and "macrosmatic" refer to species with lesser or greater levels, respectively, of olfactory function. Historically, primates are considered microsmats (olfactory sense reduced) with a concomitant increased emphasis on vision. The olfactory bulbs (forebrain centers that receive peripheral olfactory input) are proportionately smaller(More)
Databases of mutations causing Mendelian disease play a crucial role in research, diagnostic and genetic health care and can play a role in life and death decisions. These databases are thus heavily used, but only gene or locus specific databases have been previously reviewed for completeness, accuracy, currency and utility. We have performed a review of(More)
Filamentous fungi produce diverse secondary metabolites (SMs) essential to their ecology and adaptation. Although each SM is typically produced by only a handful of species, global SM production is governed by widely conserved transcriptional regulators in conjunction with other cellular processes, such as development. We examined the interplay between the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an anatomic basis for subepithelial orbicularis oris muscle defects by directly comparing ultrasonographic images of the upper lip with corresponding histological sections obtained from cadavers. METHODS Ultrasound was performed on the upper lips of previously frozen, unpreserved cadaver heads (n = 32), followed by(More)
During the 20th century, the human vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been controversial regarding its structure, function, and even identity. Despite reports that provide evidence for its presence throughout prenatal and postnatal ontogeny, some studies and numerous textbooks declare its absence in late fetal and postnatal humans. To that end, the present study(More)
It has been suggested that the complications associated with intracranial hypertension in craniosynostotic infants may be managed with surgical release of the synostosed sutures. However, both postoperative increases and decreases in intracranial pressure (ICP) have been reported in heterogeneous samples of infants with syndromic and nonsyndromic(More)
OBJECTIVE Simple craniosynostoses produce predictable morphologies of the cranial vault, with growth deficits in a direction parallel to the synostosed suture and compensatory growth at sutures that are perpendicular to and attached to the synostosed one. In coronal suture synostosis, anteroposterior growth is inhibited, with compensatory growth in a(More)