Timothy D Noakes

Learn More
A model is proposed in which the development of physical exhaustion is a relative rather than an absolute event and the sensation of fatigue is the sensory representation of the underlying neural integrative processes. Furthermore, activity is controlled as part of a pacing strategy involving active neural calculations in a "governor" region of the brain,(More)
To evaluate the role of fluid and Na+ balance in the development of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), changes in serum Na+ concentrations ([Na+]) and in body weight were analyzed in 2,135 athletes in endurance events. Eighty-nine percent of athletes completed these events either euhydrated (39%) or with weight loss (50%) and with normal (80%) or(More)
Exercise in the heat causes “central fatigue”, associated with reduced skeletal muscle recruitment during sustained isometric contractions. A similar mechanism may cause fatigue during prolonged dynamic exercise in the heat. The aim of this study was to determine whether centrally regulated skeletal muscle recruitment was altered during dynamic exercise in(More)
Twenty specialist marathon runners and 23 specialist ultra-marathon runners underwent maximal exercise testing to determine the relative value of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak treadmill running velocity, running velocity at the lactate turnpoint, VO2 at 16 km h-1, % VO2max at 16 km h-1, and running time in other races, for predicting performance(More)
The purposes of this study were (I) to assess the reproducibility of endurance performance testing on an air-braked cycle ergometer, and (II) to compare laboratory performances to performances in road races. Ten well-trained, competitive cyclists (peak power output [PPO] 443 +/- 37 W, [values are mean +/- SD]) undertook either: (I) three 20 km and three 40(More)
OBJECTIVE To record weight changes, fluid intake and changes in serum sodium concentration in ultradistance triathletes. DESIGN Descriptive research. SETTING Ironman triathlon (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, 42.2 km run). Air temperature at 1200 h was 21 degrees C, (relative humidity 91%). Water temperature was 20.7 degrees C. PARTICIPANTS 18 triathletes.(More)
Skeletal muscle buffering capacity (βm), enzyme activities and exercise performance were measured before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity, sub maximal␣interval training (HIT) undertaken by six well-trained competitive cyclists [mean maximal oxygen consumption ( O2max) = 66.2 ml · kg−1 · min−1]. HIT replaced a portion of habitual endurance training and(More)
The aim of the present study was to examine the regulation of exercise intensity in hot environments when exercise is performed at a predetermined, fixed subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Eight cyclists performed cycling trials at 15 degrees C (COOL), 25 degrees C (NORM) and 35 degrees C (HOT) (65% humidity throughout), during which they were(More)
We examined neuromuscular activity during stochastic (variable intensity) 100-km cycling time trials (TT) and the effect of dietary carbohydrate manipulation. Seven endurance-trained cyclists performed two 100-km TT that included five 1-km and four 4-km high-intensity epochs (HIE) during which power output, electromyogram (EMG), and muscle glycogen data(More)
An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late nineteenth century proposed that fatigue that "at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvelous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the(More)