Timothy D McHugh

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BACKGROUND Early-phase and preclinical studies suggest that moxifloxacin-containing regimens could allow for effective 4-month treatment of uncomplicated, smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to test the noninferiority of two moxifloxacin-containing regimens as compared(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis regimens that are shorter and simpler than the current 6-month daily regimen are needed. METHODS We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, drug-sensitive tuberculosis to one of three regimens: a control regimen that included 2 months of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide administered daily(More)
Two decades ago, WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency, and invested in the highly cost-effective directly observed treatment short-course programme to control the epidemic. At that time, most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were susceptible to first-line tuberculosis drugs, and drug resistance was not a major issue. However, in 2013,(More)
Rapid progress has been made in the development of new diagnostic assays for tuberculosis in recent years. New technologies have been developed and assessed, and are now being implemented. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay, which enables simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance, was endorsed by WHO in December, 2010.(More)
Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major threat to public health. In clinical practice, a limited number of resistance mutations in a short sequence of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase (encoded by rpoB) have been described. Spontaneous resistance to rifampin was induced in vitro in M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 9360). Only three resistance(More)
BACKGROUND Recurrence of tuberculosis after treatment makes management difficult and is a key factor for determining treatment efficacy. Two processes can cause recurrence: relapse of the primary infection or re-infection with an exogenous strain. Although re-infection can and does occur, its importance to tuberculosis epidemiology and its biological basis(More)
Tuberculosis is unique among the major infectious diseases in that it lacks accurate rapid point-of-care diagnostic tests. Failure to control the spread of tuberculosis is largely due to our inability to detect and treat all infectious cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in a timely fashion, allowing continued Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission within(More)
The rapid identification of antimicrobial resistance is essential for effective treatment of highly resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Whole-genome sequencing provides comprehensive data on resistance mutations and strain typing for monitoring transmission, but unlike for conventional molecular tests, this has previously been achievable only from(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the evolution of rifampicin resistance in response to controlled changes in the environment. METHODS We determined the proportion of rpoB mutants in the chemostat culture and characterized the sequence of mutations found in the rifampicin resistance-determining region(More)
Sujit Chakravorti is a senior economist and Timothy McHugh is a senior analyst in the Emerging Payments and Policy Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. The authors would like to thank David Allardice, Ed Green, Harvey Rosenblum, and Fiona Sigalla for numerous helpful discussions. They also thank Eve Boboch, Tom Ciesielski, David Marshall, Ann(More)