Timothy D. Mastro

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BACKGROUND Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of(More)
We have devised a simple enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that detects increasing levels of anti-HIV IgG after seroconversion and can be used for detecting recent HIV-1 infection. Use of a branched peptide that included gp41 immunodominant sequences from HIV-1 subtypes B, E, and D allowed similar detection of HIV-specific antibodies among various subtypes. Because(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the incidence of HIV-1 infection, temporal trends in incidence, and risk factors for seroconversion in a cohort of female commercial sex workers (CSW) in upper northern Thailand, the region of Thailand with the highest rates of HIV-1 infection. METHODS CSW were enrolled from 1991 through 1994 and evaluated prospectively with(More)
BACKGROUND Many developing countries have not implemented the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 076 zidovudine regimen for prevention of perinatal HIV-1 transmission because of its complexity and cost. We investigated the safety and efficacy of short-course oral zidovudine administered during late pregnancy and labour. METHODS In a randomised, double-blind,(More)
July 2007 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e223 Three randomized, controlled clinical trials in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda were recently unblinded early because interim analyses concluded that circumcision of HIV-negative adult males reduced their risk for acquiring HIV infection through penile–vaginal sex [1–3]. In each trial, men who had been randomly assigned(More)
AIMS Data from drug treatment facilities, drug seizures and drug arrests suggest rapidly increasing methamphetamine use by adolescents in Thailand. However, limited quantitative data are available about the prevalence of its use or correlates of use. The purpose of our study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of methamphetamine use and to identify(More)
87 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated during three winter seasons (1986-89) from the blood of children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in Pakistan were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to a range of antimicrobial agents. 97% of isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug. 62% had decreased susceptibility(More)
The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Thailand has allowed an estimate to be made of the probability of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission per sexual contact. In a study of 1115 21-year-old male military conscripts, of whom 77 (6.9%) were HIV-1 seropositive, sex with female prostitutes was identified as the principal mode(More)
In April 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) held a two-day consultation with a broad spectrum of stakeholders to obtain input on the potential role of male circumcision (MC) in preventing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the U.S. Working groups summarized data and discussed issues about the use of MC for(More)
In this study, we describe two cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) intersubtype superinfection with CRF01_AE and subtype B strains, which occurred in two injection drug users participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. In both cases, the superinfecting strain was detected by molecular and serologic analyses several(More)