Timothy Counihan

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BACKGROUND Calreticulin (CRT) is a chaperone protein, which aids correct folding of glycosylated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under conditions of ER stress, CRT is upregulated and may be displayed on the surface of cells or be secreted. This 'ecto-CRT' may activate the innate immune response or it may aid clearance of apoptotic cells. Our and(More)
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD), which presents itself as an inability to initiate or continue gait. This paper presents a method to monitor FOG episodes based only on acceleration measurements obtained from a waist-worn device. Three approximations of this method are tested. Initially, FOG is directly detected(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) activation in the hippocampus and neocortex plays a central role in memory and cognitive function. We analyzed the cellular expression of the five NR subunit (NR1 and NR2A-D) mRNAs in these regions with in situ hybridization and human ribonucleotide probes. Film autoradiograms demonstrated a distinct pattern of(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder characterised by clinical relapse and remission and pathological demyelination with varying inflammation. Because it is suggested that T-cells expressing natural killer cell receptors (NKR) play important roles in regulating human autoimmune diseases, we have quantified populations of T-cells expressing the(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NRs) play an important role in basal ganglia function. By using in situ hybridization with ribonucleotide probes, we investigated the regional and cellular distribution of NR subunit mRNA expression in the human basal ganglia: caudate nucleus, putamen, lateral globus pallidus (LGP), and medial globus pallidus (MGP). Analysis(More)
Evidence is accumulating that glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity plays an important role in neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, alterations in excitatory amino acid neurotransmission in the basal ganglia contribute to the clinical manifestations of motor dysfunction. However, detailed knowledge of the anatomical distribution and(More)
IMPORTANCE Mutations in the gene encoding parkin (PARK2) are the most common cause of autosomal recessive juvenile-onset and young-onset parkinsonism. The few available detailed neuropathologic reports suggest that homozygous and compound heterozygous parkin mutations are characterized by severe substantia nigra pars compacta neuronal loss. OBJECTIVE To(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that differential regional dopamine transporter (DAT) gene expression may underlie the selective vulnerability of certain nigral dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, DAT mRNA expression was examined in neuronal subpopulations of human postmortem ventral mesencephalon from patients with Parkinson's disease and(More)
The authors assessed clinical outcome for up to one year after staged bilateral pallidotomy in 14 patients with advanced PD. One year after surgery, dyskinesias were virtually abolished and there were significant reductions in "off" time (67%) and activities of daily living "off" scores (24%), as well as nonsignificant reduction in "off" motor score (39%);(More)
To extend our studies on glycolipid-reactive invariant Natural Killer T-cell (iNKT-cell) function in multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated the stimulatory activities of two myelin-derived glycolipids that are poly-acetylated derivatives of β-galactosylceramide designated as fast-migrating cerebrosides (FMC) by thin-layer chromatography. In healthy(More)