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Tuberculosis, a major health problem in developing countries, has reemerged in recent years in many industrialized countries. The increased susceptibility of immunocompromised individuals to tuberculosis, and many experimental studies indicate that T cell-mediated immunity plays an important role in resistance. The lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is(More)
IGF-I is a pleiotropic hormone reported to affect linear growth, glucose metabolism, organ homeostasis, and the immune and neurologic systems. In contrast to IGF-II, IGF-I is expressed at low levels embryonically and has been thought to be more important for postnatal growth and development. To investigate the role of IGF-I in normal development we(More)
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a pleiotrophic cytokine with immunomodulatory effects on a variety of immune cells. Mice with a targeted disruption of the IFN-gamma gene were generated. These mice developed normally and were healthy in the absence of pathogens. However, mice deficient in IFN-gamma had impaired production of macrophage antimicrobial products(More)
Growth hormone (GH) is an important regulator of postnatal growth, acting on a wide variety of target tissues. Here, we show that local production of GH in osteoblasts is able to stimulate bone growth directly without significant systemic effects. Mice were made transgenic by microinjection of an osteocalcin-human GH (osteocalcin-hGH) gene construct in(More)
The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and the corresponding receptors, are implicated in more than just the regulation of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Specifically, FGF23 is a regulator of serum inorganic phosphate levels, and mice deficient in FGF receptor-4 have altered cholesterol metabolism. The recently described FGF19 is unusual(More)
We have produced 13 strains of transgenic mice that carry an otherwise normal mouse myc gene in which increasingly larger portions of the myc promoter region have been replaced by a hormonally inducible mouse mammary tumor virus promoter. Although expression of the fusion genes varies among these animals, the female founders of two of these transgenic(More)
RIP3 is a novel gene product containing a N-terminal kinase domain that shares extensive homology with the corresponding domain in RIP (receptor-interacting protein) and RIP2. Unlike RIP, which has a C-terminal death domain, and RIP2, which has a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain, RIP3 has a unique C terminus. RIP3 binds RIP through its(More)
The secretion of insulin is controlled by the rate of glucose metabolism in the pancreatic beta cells. As phosphorylation by glucokinase (GLK) appears to be the rate-limiting step for glucose catabolism in beta cells, this enzyme may be the glucose sensor. To test this possibility and to resolve the relative roles of liver and beta cell GLK in maintaining(More)
Hormonal control of metabolic rate can be important in regulating the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure that underlies the development of obesity. In mice fed a high-fat diet, human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) increased metabolic rate [1.53 +/- 0.06 liters O(2)/h.kg(0.75) (vehicle) vs. 1.93 +/- 0.05 liters O(2)/h.kg(0.75) (FGF19); P <(More)
Prolylcarboxypeptidase was purified from human kidney 1200-fold with 18% yield. The enzyme had no cathepsin A activity and appeared to be homogeneous in gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of prolylcarboxypeptidase was estimated to be 115,000 by gel filtration. Under denaturing conditions the enzyme dissociated into subunits of 45,000 and 66,500(More)