Timothy A. Shahan

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Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of(More)
Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a stimulus depends on the rate of reinforcement associated with that stimulus, even if some of those reinforcers occur independently of the behavior. We present three experiments examining whether the rate of reinforcement in(More)
A common treatment for operant problem behavior is alternative reinforcement. When alternative reinforcement is removed or reduced, however, resurgence of the target behavior can occur. Shahan and Sweeney (2011) developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that suggests higher rates of alternative reinforcement result in(More)
Resurgence is an increase in a previously extinguished operant response that occurs if an alternative reinforcement introduced during extinction is removed. Shahan and Sweeney (2011) developed a quantitative model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory that captures existing data well and predicts that resurgence should decrease as time in(More)
Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative model of(More)
Rationale: Smoking-related respiratory stimuli produced by de-nicotinized cigarettes may function as conditioned reinforcers, but behavioral data on such reinforcing effects are limited. Objectives: The present experiment compared the reinforcing efficacy of cigarettes that provided only smoking-related stimuli (de-nicotinized cigarettes) and cigarettes(More)
The drug self-administration reinstatement procedure provides an important animal model of relapse. While the procedure is widely used, there has been little investigation of the basic processes involved. This experiment determined the specificity of reinstatement by examining reinstatement of food seeking by D-amphetamine. During training, 24 rats pressed(More)
Previous experiments on behavioral momentum have shown that relative resistance to extinction of operant behavior in the presence of a discriminative stimulus depends upon the baseline rate or magnitude of reinforcement associated with that stimulus (i.e., the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation). Recently, we have shown that relapse of operant behavior(More)
Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those(More)
In this experiment, the observing-response procedure was adapted for use with drug self-administration. Rats' responding for oral ethanol was sometimes reinforced on a random-ratio schedule, whereas at other times it had no effect (i.e., extinction). Behavior producing stimuli associated with the otherwise unsignaled random-ratio and extinction periods(More)