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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Map interpretation remains a critical step in solving the structure of a macromolecule. Errors introduced at this early stage may persist throughout crystallographic refinement and result in an incorrect structure. The normally quoted crystallographic residual is often a poor description for the quality of the model. Strategies and tools are described that(More)
The 'EXACT3D' positron tomograph, which is now in routine clinical research use, was developed with the aim of achieving unprecedented sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolution and simplicity of design using proven detector technology. It consists of six rings of standard detector blocks (CTI/Siemens EXACT HR+) with 4.39 mm x 4.05 mm x 30 mm(More)
Performance characteristics of a new design of positron tomograph with automatically retractable septa for brain imaging have been studied. The device, consisting of block BGO detectors (8 x 8 elements per block), has a ring diameter of 76 cm and an axial FOV of 106.5 mm. The in-plane resolution is on average 5.8 mm and 5.0 mm (FWHM) for stationary and(More)
Dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved in learning, reinforcement of behaviour, attention, and sensorimotor integration. Binding of the radioligand 11C-labelled raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors is sensitive to levels of endogenous dopamine, which can be released by pharmacological challenge. Here we use 11C-labelled raclopride and positron(More)
BACKGROUND Activated microglia have a key role in the brain's immune response to neuronal degeneration. The transition of microglia from the normal resting state to the activated state is associated with an increased expression of receptors known as peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites, which are abundant on cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage. We(More)
A computer program, VOIDOO, is described which can be employed in the study of cavities such as they occur in macromolecular structures (in particular, in proteins). The program can be used to detect unknown cavities or to delineate known cavities, either of which may be connected to the outside of the molecule or molecular assembly under study. Optionally,(More)
The large-scale chromatin organization of the major histocompatibility complex and other regions of chromosome 6 was studied by three-dimensional image analysis in human cell types with major differences in transcriptional activity. Entire gene clusters were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization with multiple locus-specific probes. Individual(More)
We describe a new technique for the analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans, where data consist of the time courses of label in tissue regions of interest and in arterial blood, following the administration of radiolabelled tracers. The technique produces a simple spectrum of the kinetic components which relate the tissue's(More)
Positron emission tomography regional CBF (rCBF) studies of cognitive processes have traditionally required 30-60 mCi of H2(15)O per scan and intersubject averaging to achieve statistical significance. However, intersubject anatomical, functional, and disease variability can make such an approach problematic. A new method that produces significant results(More)