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Recent evidence suggest that resistance to praziquantel (PZQ) may be developing. This would not be surprising in countries like Egypt where the drug has been used aggressively for more that 10 years. The classic phenotype of drug resistance is a significant increase in the 50% effective dose value of isolates retrieved from patients not responding to the(More)
The aggressive use of praziquantel to combat schistosomiasis in Egpyt raises concern about the possible emergence of resistance. Eggs from Egyptian patients with praziquantel-resistant infections (not cured by 3 doses of praziquantel) have been used to establish infection-specific schistosome isolates in mice. The response of these worms to the drug was(More)
These studies are focused on schistosomes derived from human infections not cured by three successive doses of praziquantel that also produced infections in mice that were significantly more difficult to cure than infections with control worms. Half (three of six) of these isolates retained their decreased response to praziquantel after multiple passages(More)
Molluscan FMRFamide and two recently discovered platyhelminth FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs), GNFFRFamide from the cestode Moniezia expansa and RYIRFamide from the terrestrial turbellarian Artioposthia triangulata, cause dose-dependent contractions of individual muscle fibres from Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. The most potent FaRP tested was the(More)
Muscle fibres isolated from adult Schistosoma mansoni contracted in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to elevated K+ with a maximum response obtained with 25 mM K+. These contractions were dependent on extracellular Ca2+ since Co2+ (5 mM) or nicardipine (1 microM) blocked the high K+ contractions. Serotonin (300 nM or higher) was required for maintenance(More)
We have isolated a cDNA (SKv1.1) encoding a Shaker-related K+ channel from an adult cDNA library of the human parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni. The deduced amino acid sequence (512 aa, 56.5 kDa) contains 6 putative membrane-spanning domains (S1-S6) and a pore-forming domain (H5). SKv1.1 is grouped in the Shaker family, but forms a unique branch(More)
Using the filamentous actin marker, FITC-conjugated phalloidin, the major muscle systems of adult male and female schistosomes have been examined. The body wall musculature comprises an outer sheath of circular fibres, within which there is a compact layer of short, spindle-shaped longitudinal fibres and a lattice-like arrangement of inner diagonal fibres.(More)
Two distinct families of neuropeptides are known to endow platyhelminth nervous systems - the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) and the neuropeptide Fs (NPFs). Flatworm FLPs are structurally simple, each 4-6 amino acids in length with a carboxy terminal aromatic-hydrophobic-Arg-Phe-amide motif. Thus far, four distinct flatworm FLPs have been characterized,(More)
Phalloidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining of filamentous actin was used to identify muscle systems within the cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. Examination of labeled cercariae by confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed distinct organizational levels of myofiber arrangements within the body wall, anterior cone, acetabulum, and esophagus. The body(More)
Here we report the identification of a new family of helminth neuropeptides with members in both nematodes and flatworms, and include preliminary cell biological and functional characterisation of one of the peptides from the trematode parasite of humans, Schistosoma mansoni. Bioinformatics and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE)-PCR were used to(More)