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"Executive functions" is an umbrella term for functions such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility, as well as the initiation and monitoring of action. The impairment of executive functions in various clinical groups is a topic of much debate, as are recent attempts to formulate the corresponding intervention and rehabilitation regimes(More)
BACKGROUND Structural brain volume abnormalities are among the most extensively studied endophenotypes in schizophrenia. Bivariate genetic model fitting (adjusted to account for selection) was used to quantify the genetic relationship between schizophrenia and brain volumes and to estimate the heritability of these volumes. METHOD We demonstrated by(More)
OBJECTIVE Several components of event-related potentials--P50 suppression, P300 amplitude and latency, and mismatch negativity--have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for schizophrenia on the basis of family studies. The present study used a twin design to estimate the extent of genetic overlap between these indices and the liability to(More)
BACKGROUND Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for(More)
CONTEXT The use of endophenotypes, biological traits that increase the liability to a disorder, represents one strategy to facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes for complex behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia. Establishing that a candidate trait is both heritable and linked genetically to schizophrenia is integral to its validity as an(More)
Deletions and reciprocal duplications of the chromosome 16p13.1 region have recently been reported in several cases of autism and mental retardation (MR). As genomic copy number variants found in these two disorders may also associate with schizophrenia, we examined 4345 schizophrenia patients and 35,079 controls from 8 European populations for duplications(More)
A trio of genome-wide association studies recently reported sequence variants at three loci to be significantly associated with schizophrenia. No sequence polymorphism had been unequivocally (P<5 × 10(-8)) associated with schizophrenia earlier. However, one variant, rs1344706[T], had come very close. This polymorphism, located in an intron of ZNF804A, was(More)
Dopamine has a crucial role in the modulation of neurocognitive function, and synaptic dopamine activity is normally regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Perturbed dopamine function is a key pathophysiological feature of schizophrenia. Our objectives were (i) to examine epistasis between the DAT 3' UTR(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced power and phase locking of the early auditory gamma-band response (EAGBR) have been reported in schizophrenia, but findings are equivocal. Further, little is known about genetic (heritability) and environmental influences on the EAGBR or its potential as an endophenotype of schizophrenia. The present study used a twin design to examine(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia to date have been largely inconsistent. This may reflect variation in methodology, and the use of small samples with differing illness duration and medication exposure. AIMS To determine the extent and location of white matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia, using(More)