Timothea Toulopoulou

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"Executive functions" is an umbrella term for functions such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility, as well as the initiation and monitoring of action. The impairment of executive functions in various clinical groups is a topic of much debate, as are recent attempts to formulate the corresponding intervention and rehabilitation regimes(More)
BACKGROUND Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia to date have been largely inconsistent. This may reflect variation in methodology, and the use of small samples with differing illness duration and medication exposure. AIMS To determine the extent and location of white matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia, using(More)
INTRODUCTION Abnormalities in the neurophysiological measures P300 amplitude and latency constitute endophenotypes for psychosis. Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been proposed as a promising susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, and a previous study has suggested that it is associated with P300 deficits in schizophrenia. METHODS We examined the(More)
Intellectual asymmetry with superiority of verbal skills to spatial skills frequently characterises patients with schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether this pattern also reflects genetic susceptibility to the disorder. We examined the association of a continuous measure of genetic liability to schizophrenia with Verbal-Spatial Contrast IQ (an index of(More)
Studies of the major psychoses, schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), have traditionally focused on genetic and environmental risk factors, although more recent work has highlighted an additional role for epigenetic processes in mediating susceptibility. Since monozygotic (MZ) twins share a common DNA sequence, their study represents an ideal design(More)
CONTEXT The use of endophenotypes, biological traits that increase the liability to a disorder, represents one strategy to facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes for complex behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia. Establishing that a candidate trait is both heritable and linked genetically to schizophrenia is integral to its validity as an(More)
The val66 met polymorphism of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with variability in episodic memory [Egan et al., 2003]. In an attempt to replicate this finding, we genotyped 206 individuals (92 affected with schizophrenia or a related disorder and 114 unaffected relatives) from the Maudsley Family Study for the BDNF val66 met(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced power and phase locking of the early auditory gamma-band response (EAGBR) have been reported in schizophrenia, but findings are equivocal. Further, little is known about genetic (heritability) and environmental influences on the EAGBR or its potential as an endophenotype of schizophrenia. The present study used a twin design to examine(More)
BACKGROUND Functional neuroimaging supports the hypothesis that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia result from altered functional connectivity between perisylvian language regions, although the extent to which AVH are also associated with an altered tract anatomy is less clear. METHODS Twenty-eight patients with schizophrenia subdivided(More)