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"Executive functions" is an umbrella term for functions such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility, as well as the initiation and monitoring of action. The impairment of executive functions in various clinical groups is a topic of much debate, as are recent attempts to formulate the corresponding intervention and rehabilitation regimes(More)
BACKGROUND Structural brain volume abnormalities are among the most extensively studied endophenotypes in schizophrenia. Bivariate genetic model fitting (adjusted to account for selection) was used to quantify the genetic relationship between schizophrenia and brain volumes and to estimate the heritability of these volumes. METHOD We demonstrated by(More)
Deletions and reciprocal duplications of the chromosome 16p13.1 region have recently been reported in several cases of autism and mental retardation (MR). As genomic copy number variants found in these two disorders may also associate with schizophrenia, we examined 4345 schizophrenia patients and 35,079 controls from 8 European populations for duplications(More)
BACKGROUND Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for(More)
Deletions within the neurexin 1 gene (NRXN1; 2p16.3) are associated with autism and have also been reported in two families with schizophrenia. We examined NRXN1, and the closely related NRXN2 and NRXN3 genes, for copy number variants (CNVs) in 2977 schizophrenia patients and 33 746 controls from seven European populations (Iceland, Finland, Norway,(More)
A trio of genome-wide association studies recently reported sequence variants at three loci to be significantly associated with schizophrenia. No sequence polymorphism had been unequivocally (P<5 × 10(-8)) associated with schizophrenia earlier. However, one variant, rs1344706[T], had come very close. This polymorphism, located in an intron of ZNF804A, was(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia to date have been largely inconsistent. This may reflect variation in methodology, and the use of small samples with differing illness duration and medication exposure. AIMS To determine the extent and location of white matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia, using(More)
CONTEXT The use of endophenotypes, biological traits that increase the liability to a disorder, represents one strategy to facilitate the detection of susceptibility genes for complex behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia. Establishing that a candidate trait is both heritable and linked genetically to schizophrenia is integral to its validity as an(More)
Structural brain abnormalities are consistently reported in schizophrenic subjects but the etiology of these abnormalities remains unclear. We tested the contribution of genetic predisposition and obstetric complications to the structural brain abnormalities found in schizophrenic probands and their relatives. MRI scans were carried out on 35 schizophrenic(More)
BACKGROUND Memory dysfunction among healthy relatives of patients with schizophrenia suggests that genetic liability to the disorder can also be manifested as cognitive impairment. This study was designed to further elucidate the nature of the memory dysfunction being transmitted. METHOD Memory function was assessed in 62 schizophrenic patients, 98 of(More)