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In development and differentiation, morphological changes often accompany mechanical changes [1], but it is unclear whether or when cells in embryos sense tissue elasticity. The earliest embryo is uniformly pliable, while adult tissues vary widely in mechanics from soft brain and stiff heart to rigid bone [2]. However, cell sensitivity to microenvironment(More)
Cell membrane organization is the result of the collective effect of many driving forces. Several of these, such as electrostatic and van der Waals forces, have been identified and studied in detail. In this article, we investigate and quantify another force, the interaction between inclusions via deformations of the membrane shape. For electrically neutral(More)
Heterogeneities in the cell membrane due to coexisting lipid phases have been conjectured to play a major functional role in cell signaling and membrane trafficking. Thereby the material properties of multiphase systems, such as the line tension and the bending moduli, are crucially involved in the kinetics and the asymptotic behavior of phase separation.(More)
In cells, membrane tubes are extracted by molecular motors. Although individual motors cannot provide enough force to pull a tube, clusters of such motors can. Here, we investigate, using a minimal in vitro model system, how the tube pulling process depends on fundamental properties of the motor species involved. Previously, it has been shown that(More)
Contact inhibition is the process by which cells switch from a motile growing state to a passive and stabilized state upon touching their neighbors. When two cells touch, an adhesion link is created between them by means of transmembrane E-cadherin proteins. Simultaneously, their actin filaments stop polymerizing in the direction perpendicular to the(More)
Based on the Canham-Helfrich free energy, we derive analytical expressions for the shapes of axisymmetric membranes consisting of multiple domains. We give explicit equations for both closed vesicles and almost cylindrical tubes. Using these expressions, we also find the shape of a tube attached to a spherical vesicle. The resulting shapes compare well to(More)
Mitosis in the early syncytial Drosophila embryo is highly correlated in space and time, as manifested in mitotic wavefronts that propagate across the embryo. In this paper we investigate the idea that the embryo can be considered a mechanically-excitable medium, and that mitotic wavefronts can be understood as nonlinear wavefronts that propagate through(More)
Models that invoke nonlinear wavefront propagation in a chemically excitable medium are rife in the biological literature. Indeed, the idea that wavefront propagation can serve as a signaling mechanism has often been invoked to explain synchronization of developmental processes. In this paper we suggest a kind of signaling based not on diffusion of a(More)
The interplay of membrane proteins is vital for many biological processes, such as cellular transport, cell division, and signal transduction between nerve cells. Theoretical considerations have led to the idea that the membrane itself mediates protein self-organization in these processes through minimization of membrane curvature energy. Here, we present a(More)
We present a model of soft active particles that leads to a rich array of collective behavior found also in dense biological swarms of bacteria and other unicellular organisms. Our model uses only local interactions, such as Vicsek-type nearest-neighbor alignment, short-range repulsion, and a local boundary term. Changing the relative strength of these(More)