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Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been shown to be involved in the maintenance of striatal dopaminergic neurons. To study whether reduced levels of endogenous GDNF affect the striatal dopaminergic transmission we estimated the basal extracellular levels of dopamine in vivo, the basal expression of FosB-related proteins in striatal brain(More)
The role of dopamine in opioid reward is unresolved. Furthermore, the issue is somewhat unclear regarding cocaine and the place preference paradigm. In the present study we investigated whether the drugs activating dopamine autoreceptors affect cocaine- and morphine-induced place preference in rats. Neither the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, quinpirole(More)
In vertebrates the development and function of the nervous system is regulated by neurotrophic factors (NTFs). Despite extensive searches no neurotrophic factors have been found in invertebrates. However, cell ablation studies in Drosophila suggest trophic interaction between neurons and glia. Here we report the invertebrate neurotrophic factor in(More)
The Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is the common signaling receptor for the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands. The Met918Thr mutation leads to constitutive activation of Ret and is responsible for dominantly inherited cancer syndrome MEN2B. Previously, we found that the mice carrying the mutation (MEN2B mice) have profoundly(More)
The effects of acute morphine on the release of dopamine (DA) in the striatum and limbic forebrain of rats upon 48 h withdrawal from 20-day morphine treatment were studied using 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) in tissue as an index of DA release. Homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were also measured. The chronic morphine treatment(More)
A double-blind, randomized, multi-center, parallel-group study was conducted in Finland to compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone with zuclopenthixol in patients with acute exacerbations of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder. Ninety-eight patients were randomly assigned to treatment with risperidone (n = 48) or zuclopenthixol (n = 50), in(More)
The effect of intrastriatally-administered morphine on striatal dopamine (DA) release was studied in freely moving rats. Morphine (1, 10 or 100 microM) was given into the striatum by reversed microdialysis, and concentrations of DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were simultaneously measured from the(More)
Cerebral dopaminergic mechanisms were studied in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen of alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko Non-Alcohol) rats after 4-day repeated morphine treatment. This treatment has been shown to enhance the locomotor activity stimulating effect of morphine in the AA but not in the ANA rats. Morphine(More)
The alcohol-preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) rats are more rapidly sensitized to the locomotor activity-stimulating effects of small doses of morphine than the alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko Non-Alcohol) rats. To study the involvement of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission in this behaviour, the effects of acute morphine (1 mg/kg) challenge on the(More)
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of mu 1-opioid receptors in morphine reward. Therefore, we studied the ability of a mu 1-selective antagonist, naloxonazine [15 mg/kg intraperitoneally (IP)], to antagonize the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by morphine [3 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC)]. In addition, effects of naloxonazine on(More)