Timo Otonkoski

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The mechanisms underlying the low efficiency of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are poorly understood. There is a clear need to study whether the reprogramming process itself compromises genomic integrity and, through this, the efficiency of iPS cell establishment. Using a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism(More)
The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and(More)
It is thought that enterovirus infections cause beta-cell damage and contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes by replicating in the pancreatic islets. We sought evidence for this through autopsy studies and by investigating known enterovirus receptors in cultured human islets. Autopsy pancreases from 12 newborn infants who died of fulminant(More)
Pancreatic acini and islets are believed to differentiate from common ductal precursors through a process requiring various growth factors. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) is expressed throughout the developing pancreas. We have analyzed here the pancreatic phenotype of EGF-R deficient (-/-) mice, which generally die from epithelial immaturity(More)
Prolonged culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can lead to adaptation and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities, underscoring the need for rigorous genetic analysis of these cells. Here we report the highest-resolution study of hESCs to date using an Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array containing 906,600 probes for single nucleotide polymorphisms(More)
Enteroviruses may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, either through direct beta-cell infection or as triggers of autoimmunity. In the present study we investigated the patterns of infection in adult human islet cell preparations (consisting of 56+/-14% beta-cells) by several coxsackieviruses. The cells were infected with(More)
The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) on human fetal and adult endocrine pancreatic cells were studied in tissue culture. Treatment of the fetal cells with 10 mM NIC resulted in a twofold increase in DNA content and a threefold increase in insulin content. This was associated with the development of beta cell outgrowths from undifferentiated epithelial cell(More)
It is thought that enterovirus infections initiate or facilitate the pathogenetic processes leading to type 1 diabetes. Exposure of cultured human islets to cytolytic enterovirus strains kills beta cells after a protracted period, suggesting a role for secondary virus-induced factors such as cytokines. To clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in(More)
Ex vivo expansion of human fetal pancreatic endocrine cells is important for biological studies and as a potential tissue source for transplantation in insulin-deficient states. In tissue culture experiments involving the use of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and selected extracellular matrices, we obtained a 30-fold increase in cell number of(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium channels play a major role in linking metabolic signals to the exocytosis of insulin in the pancreatic beta cell. These channels consist of two types of protein subunit: the sulfonylurea receptor SUR1 and the inward rectifying potassium channel Kir6.2. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins are the most common cause of(More)