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The mechanisms underlying the low efficiency of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are poorly understood. There is a clear need to study whether the reprogramming process itself compromises genomic integrity and, through this, the efficiency of iPS cell establishment. Using a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism(More)
Ex vivo expansion of human fetal pancreatic endocrine cells is important for biological studies and as a potential tissue source for transplantation in insulin-deficient states. In tissue culture experiments involving the use of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and selected extracellular matrices, we obtained a 30-fold increase in cell number of(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations manifest with vast clinical heterogeneity. The molecular basis of this variability is mostly unknown because the lack of model systems has hampered mechanistic studies. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells from patients carrying the most common human disease mutation in mtDNA, m.3243A>G, underlying mitochondrial(More)
Identification of molecular components that define a pluripotent human embryonic stem cell (hESC) provides the basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the maintenance of pluripotency and induction of differentiation. We compared the gene expression profiles of seven genetically independent hESC lines with those of(More)
The scarcity of human adult islets available for transplantation in IDDM makes the use of human fetal pancreatic cells desirable. Human fetal pancreatic cells grow and differentiate after transplantation in nude mice. It is unclear whether proliferation of preexisting endocrine cells or differentiation of precursor cells is mainly responsible for the(More)
Isolation of endocrine cell precursors from the human fetal pancreas will be important to the study of islet cytodifferentiation and eventually for islet transplantation in insulin-dependent diabetes. These precursor cells, from which all four islet endocrine cell types arise, are present within fetal pancreatic ductal epithelium. After enzymatic digestion(More)
All forms of diabetes mellitus (DM) are characterized by the loss of functional pancreatic β cell mass, leading to insufficient insulin secretion. Thus, identification of novel approaches to protect and restore β cells is essential for the development of DM therapies. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an endoplasmic reticulum(More)
The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) on human fetal and adult endocrine pancreatic cells were studied in tissue culture. Treatment of the fetal cells with 10 mM NIC resulted in a twofold increase in DNA content and a threefold increase in insulin content. This was associated with the development of beta cell outgrowths from undifferentiated epithelial cell(More)
Prolonged culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can lead to adaptation and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities, underscoring the need for rigorous genetic analysis of these cells. Here we report the highest-resolution study of hESCs to date using an Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array containing 906,600 probes for single nucleotide polymorphisms(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS It is thought that enterovirus infections cause beta-cell damage and contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes by replicating in the pancreatic islets. We sought evidence for this through autopsy studies and by investigating known enterovirus receptors in cultured human islets. METHODS Autopsy pancreases from 12 newborn infants who(More)