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The mechanisms underlying the low efficiency of reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are poorly understood. There is a clear need to study whether the reprogramming process itself compromises genomic integrity and, through this, the efficiency of iPS cell establishment. Using a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism(More)
CRISPR/Cas9 protein fused to transactivation domains can be used to control gene expression in human cells. In this study, we demonstrate that a dCas9 fusion with repeats of VP16 activator domains can efficiently activate human genes involved in pluripotency in various cell types. This activator in combination with guide RNAs targeted to the OCT4 promoter(More)
Th17 immunity has been shown to regulate autoimmune diabetes in mice. IL-17 neutralization prevented development of diabetes when given postinitiation of insulitis but not earlier, suggesting interference with the effector phase of the disease. Islet-cell Ag-specific Th17 cells converted into IFN-gamma-secreting Th1-like cells and caused diabetes in mice(More)
The transgenic E1-DN mice express a kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor in their pancreatic islets and are diabetic from two weeks of age due to impaired postnatal growth of β-cell mass. Here, we characterize the development of hyperglycaemia-induced renal injury in the E1-DN mice. Homozygous mice showed increased albumin excretion rate (AER)(More)
BACKGROUND Complex carbohydrate structures, glycans, are essential components of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. While individual glycan structures including the SSEA and Tra antigens are already used to define undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC), the whole spectrum of stem cell glycans has remained unknown. We undertook a(More)
BACKGROUND The growth of stem cells in in vitro conditions requires optimal balance between signals mediating cell survival, proliferation, and self-renewal. For clinical application of stem cells, the use of completely defined conditions and elimination of all animal-derived materials from the establishment, culture, and differentiation processes is(More)
BACKGROUND Individual differences between human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation of five hESC lines (called FES 21, 22, 29, 30 and 61) from frozen-thawed human embryos and compare their individual differentiation characteristic. RESULTS The cell lines were cultured either on human or mouse feeder(More)
Reports on the retention of somatic cell memory in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have complicated the selection of the optimal cell type for the generation of iPSC biobanks. To address this issue we compared transcriptomic, epigenetic, and differentiation propensities of genetically matched human iPSCs derived from fibroblasts and blood, two(More)
sensitive potassium (K ATP) channels are inhibited by intracellular ATP and activated by ADP. Nutrient oxidation in ␤-cells leads to a rise in [ATP]-to-[ADP] ratios, which in turn leads to reduced K ATP channel activity, depolarization, voltage dependent Ca 2ϩ channel activation, Ca 2ϩ entry, and exocytosis. Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of(More)
BACKGROUND ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are major regulators of glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. We have described a dominant heterozygous mutation--E1506K--in the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) gene (ABCC8) in a Finnish family, which leads to congenital hyperinsulinaemia due to reduction of K(ATP)-channel activity. We(More)