Timo Leinonen

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In this study, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy was utilised to characterize and identify the metal-ester coordination in active fourth generation (phthalate) Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is known that different donors affect the active species in ZN catalysts. However, there is still limited data available of detailed molecular information how the donors(More)
Ziegler–Natta polymerization catalysts were characterized by a complex of surfaceand bulk-sensitive methods (DRIFTS, XPS, ESR, and XAS = XANES + EXAFS). A diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) study showed the presence of strong Lewis acid sites in different concentrations and absence of strong basic sites in the polymerization(More)
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