Timo Kuuluvainen

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The boreal forest, one of the largest biomes on Earth, provides ecosystem services that benefit society at levels ranging from local to global. Currently, about two-thirds of the area covered by this biome is under some form of management, mostly for wood production. Services such as climate regulation are also provided by both the unmanaged and managed(More)
In Fennoscandia, use of the natural forest as a reference for restoration and management of forest biodiversity has been widely accepted. However, limited understanding of the structure and dynamics of the natural forest has hampered the applications of the natural variability approach. This is especially the case in areas, where the natural forests have(More)
Since WWII, forest management in Fennoscandia has primarily been based on even-aged stand management, clear cut harvesting and thinning from below. As an alternative, uneven-aged management, based on selection cutting of individual trees or small groups of trees, has been proposed. In this review we discuss the theoretical aspects of ecology and economics(More)
• This review summarizes early stand-scale studies of pristine forest structures, disturbance regimes and successional patterns carried out in boreal Eurasia. We attempt to reveal, characterize and classify stand dynamic types that can be used as templates for nature-based forest management. • The studies reviewed demonstrate multiple successional pathways(More)
Recent research in northern Europe has revised many long-held conceptions of the complexity of forest ecosystems and their natural structure and dynamics. The unveiling of the picture of natural characteristics of forest ecosystem structure and dynamics reveals much more diversity than its traditional complement, highlighting the importance of(More)
Mountain forests are among the most important ecosystems in Europe as they support numerous ecological, hydrological, climatic, social, and economic functions. They are unique relatively natural ecosystems consisting of long-lived species in an otherwise densely populated human landscape. Despite this, centuries of intensive forest management in many of(More)
We examined tree mortality agents in pristine old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests in northern Finland and northwestern Russia. The data was collected on nine 40 m × 400 m transects. The primary mortality agents of recently dead trees were recorded and their frequencies were calculated. The pattern of tree growth prior to death was studied(More)
We examined the initial response of the quantity and distribution of fine roots to the creation of an experimental canopy gap with a diameter of 50 m in a mature managed Norway spruce forest. Under the canopy, the fine root length densities of trees, shrubs, and grasses and herbs were 3207, 707 and 2738 m m−2, respectively. The fine root biomass of trees,(More)
We reviewed studies dealing with regeneration under variable conditions in boreal and hemiboreal forests as affected by different microsite types by tree species functional groups. Generally, the importance of storm-induced microsites for regeneration dynamics in boreal forests depends on several factors: (1) distribution and type of microsites (generated(More)
The production and allocation of aboveground biomass and the characteristics of tree architecture were examined in eight-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Considerable among-tree variation existed in tree architecture, total aboveground dry mass production, and dry mass partitioning among tree parts. A linear relationship existed between needle and(More)