Timo Karhula

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Broadband Internet access is not hype but everyday reality. Internet service providers are calling everything that is sufficient for using current Internet services as broadband. The use for broadband is changing towards high bandwidth services, like IPTV. However current broadband connections limit deployment of new high bandwidth services. In this paper(More)
Before joining the EU the Finnish pricing policy for the agricultural sector followed the so-called high-price system, where product prices were largely determined by the domestic cost level. Following EU membership the so-called average-price rule was adopted, resulting in a sharp fall in prices with farmers’ loss of earnings being compensated for with(More)
Both the farm-specific and regional costs of clean feeding as a countermeasure to reduce ingestion of contaminated grass when there is insufficient supply of other types of roughage were estimated for dairy farming in Finland in the first year after contamination. The cost estimation considered expenditures and revenues associated with milk production and(More)
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