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Dendritic cells (DC) initiate immunity and maintain tolerance. Although in vitro-generated DC, usually derived from peripheral blood monocytes (MO-DC), serve as prototype DC to analyze the biology and biochemistry of DC, phenotypically distinct primary types of DC, including CD1c-DC, are present in peripheral blood (PB-DC). The composition of lysosomal(More)
CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling controls multiple physiological processes and its dysregulation is associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, we screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. This approach identified a 16 amino acid fragment of serum albumin as an(More)
The serine protease cathepsin G (CatG) is expressed in primary antigen-presenting cells and regulates autoantigen processing in CatG pre-loaded fibroblasts. To further investigate the function of CatG in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II loading compartments, a specific, cell permeable CatG-inhibitor is needed. In this study, several(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) act as a first-line recognition system for invading pathogens, such as influenza A. The interaction of DC with influenza A virus results in DC activation via endosomal Toll-like receptors and also leads to presentation of viral peptides on MHC class II molecules. Prior work demonstrated that influenza A virus (A/HKx31; H3N2) infection(More)
Cathepsin D (CatD) is a member of the mammalian aspartic protease family and is involved in cellular protein degradation and in several pathological processes. A sensitive and specific assay for the determination of CatD activity in biological samples was developed. The peptide amide substrates Amca-EDKPILF downward arrowFRLGK(biotin)-CONH2 (I),(More)
Autoantigenic peptides resulting from self-proteins such as proinsulin are important players in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Self-proteins can be processed by cathepsins (Cats) within endocytic compartments and loaded to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules for CD4(+) T cell inspection. However, the processing and(More)
In the beginning of the 20th century, enzymes with proteolytic activity were classified as peptidases, Erepsin, and proteases. Among these, pepsin, trypsin, and autolytic enzymes were of the protease class. Spleen-derived proteases were poorly characterized until Sven Gustaf Hedin performed several digestion experiments with bovine spleen. He incubated(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a common primary malignant brain tumor, rarely disseminates beyond the central nervous system and has a very bad prognosis. The current study aimed at the analysis of immunological control in individual patients with GBM. METHODS Immune phenotypes and plasma biomarkers of GBM patients were determined at the time(More)
The prognosis of lymphoid neoplasms has improved considerably during the last decades. However, treatment response for some lymphoid neoplasms is still poor, indicating the need for new therapeutic approaches. One promising new strategy is the inhibition of kinases regulating key signal transduction pathways, which are of central importance in(More)
OBJECTIVE Cell-mediated inflammation is critical in the development of cerebrovascular complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We analyzed the course for activated CD16brightCD56dim cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells in cerebrospinal fluid of 15 patients. METHODS Patients were classified by occurrence of cerebral vasospasm (CV) and(More)