Timo Burster

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Dendritic cells (DC) initiate immunity and maintain tolerance. Although in vitro-generated DC, usually derived from peripheral blood monocytes (MO-DC), serve as prototype DC to analyze the biology and biochemistry of DC, phenotypically distinct primary types of DC, including CD1c-DC, are present in peripheral blood (PB-DC). The composition of lysosomal(More)
In antigen-presenting cells (APCs), loading of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules with peptides is regulated by invariant chain (Ii), which blocks MHC II antigen-binding sites in pre-endosomal compartments. Several molecules then act upon MHC II molecules in endosomes to facilitate peptide loading: Ii-degrading proteases, the(More)
Selective inhibition of enzymes involved in antigen processing such as cathepsin E and cathepsin D is a valuable tool for investigating the roles of these enzymes in the processing pathway. However, the aspartic protease inhibitors, including the highly potent pepstatin A (PepA), are inefficiently transported across the cell membrane and thus have limited(More)
Expression of HLA-DO (DO) in cells that express HLA-DM (DM) results in an altered repertoire of MHC class II/peptide complexes, indicating that DO modulates DM function. Human and murine B cells and thymic epithelial cells express DO, while monocytes/macrophages do not. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) also have been found to be DO-negative, leading to(More)
Cathepsin D (CatD) is a member of the mammalian aspartic protease family and is involved in cellular protein degradation and in several pathological processes. A sensitive and specific assay for the determination of CatD activity in biological samples was developed. The peptide amide substrates Amca-EDKPILF downward arrowFRLGK(biotin)-CONH2 (I),(More)
The asparagine-specific endoprotease (AEP) controls lysosomal processing of the potential autoantigen myelin basic protein (MBP) by human B lymphoblastoid cells, a feature implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that freshly isolated human B lymphocytes lack significant AEP activity and that cleavage by AEP(More)
Cathepsins of the cysteine, aspartyl, and serine classes are involved in antigen processing in the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loading compartment. Investigation of these proteases in living cells is difficult to perform due to the lack of highly specific cell-permeable inhibitors. Recently, a highly selective cathepsin B (CatB)(More)
Processing of antigens by proteases in the endocytic compartments of antigen presenting cells (APC) is essential to make them suitable for presentation as antigenic peptides to T lymphocytes. Several proteases of the cysteine, aspartyl and serine classes are involved in this process. It has been speculated, that the aspartyl protease cathepsin E (CatE) is(More)
Cathepsins are required for the processing of antigens in order to make them suitable for loading on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, for subsequent presentation to CD4(+) T cells. It was shown that antigen processing in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), a commonly used DC model, is different from that of primary human DC.(More)
Contributions from multiple cathepsins within endosomal antigen processing compartments are necessary to process antigenic proteins into antigenic peptides. Cysteine and aspartyl cathepsins have been known to digest antigenic proteins. A role for the serine protease, cathepsin G (CatG), in this process has been described only recently, although CatG has(More)