Timo Burster

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In antigen-presenting cells (APCs), loading of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules with peptides is regulated by invariant chain (Ii), which blocks MHC II antigen-binding sites in pre-endosomal compartments. Several molecules then act upon MHC II molecules in endosomes to facilitate peptide loading: Ii-degrading proteases, the(More)
Contributions from multiple cathepsins within endosomal antigen processing compartments are necessary to process antigenic proteins into antigenic peptides. Cysteine and aspartyl cathepsins have been known to digest antigenic proteins. A role for the serine protease, cathepsin G (CatG), in this process has been described only recently, although CatG has(More)
The asparagine-specific endoprotease (AEP) controls lysosomal processing of the potential autoantigen myelin basic protein (MBP) by human B lymphoblastoid cells, a feature implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that freshly isolated human B lymphocytes lack significant AEP activity and that cleavage by AEP(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) initiate immunity and maintain tolerance. Although in vitro-generated DC, usually derived from peripheral blood monocytes (MO-DC), serve as prototype DC to analyze the biology and biochemistry of DC, phenotypically distinct primary types of DC, including CD1c-DC, are present in peripheral blood (PB-DC). The composition of lysosomal(More)
CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling controls multiple physiological processes and its dysregulation is associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, we screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. This approach identified a 16 amino acid fragment of serum albumin as an(More)
BACKGROUND Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a common primary malignant brain tumor, rarely disseminates beyond the central nervous system and has a very bad prognosis. The current study aimed at the analysis of immunological control in individual patients with GBM. METHODS Immune phenotypes and plasma biomarkers of GBM patients were determined at the time(More)
Endocytic proteolysis represents a major functional component of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presentation machinery. Although transport and assembly of class II molecules in the endocytic compartment are well characterized, we lack information about the pattern of endocytic protease activity along this pathway. Here, we used(More)
Keratinocytes are an integral component of the skin immune system and function as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in pathophysiologic conditions when they express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, e.g., in psoriasis. In order to analyze further this function we investigated the activity of cathepsin S in comparison with(More)
The mammalian legumain, also called asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), is critically involved in the processing of bacterial antigens for MHC class II presentation. In order to investigate the substrate specificity of AEP in the P1' position, we created a peptide library and digested it with purified pig kidney AEP. Digestion was less efficient only when(More)
Selective inhibition of enzymes involved in antigen processing such as cathepsin E and cathepsin D is a valuable tool for investigating the roles of these enzymes in the processing pathway. However, the aspartic protease inhibitors, including the highly potent pepstatin A (PepA), are inefficiently transported across the cell membrane and thus have limited(More)