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A monoclonal antibody (MCI20.6) which inhibited measles virus (MV) binding to host cells was previously used to characterize a 57- to 67-kDa cell surface glycoprotein as a potential MV receptor. In the present work, this glycoprotein (gp57/67) was immunopurified, and N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified it as human membrane cofactor protein (CD46), a(More)
We have used site-directed mutagenesis of the hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein of measles virus (MV) to investigate the molecular basis for the phenotypic differences observed between MV vaccine strains and recently isolated wild-type MV strains. The former downregulate CD46, the putative cellular receptor of MV, are positive for hemadsorption, and are(More)
A predominantly pig-to-human zoonotic infection caused by the novel Nipah virus emerged recently to cause severe morbidity and mortality in both animals and man. Human autopsy studies showed the pathogenesis to be related to systemic vasculitis that led to widespread thrombotic occlusion and microinfarction in most major organs especially in the central(More)
The sequences of a region of the nucleocapsid protein gene, between nucleotides 1231 and 1686, encoding the C-terminal 151 amino acid residues of the nucleocapsid protein have been determined for 16 strains of measles virus. Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 7.2% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 10.6% divergence in(More)
CD46 is a widely expressed transmembrane protein that was initially identified as binding and inactivating C3b and C4b complement products. We used mice that were transgenic for one of two human CD46 isoforms that differ in their cytoplasmic domains (termed CD46-1 and CD46-2) to analyze the effect of CD46 stimulation on the immune response. We show here(More)
During 2005-2006, nine measles virus (MV) genotypes were identified throughout the World Health Organization European Region. All major epidemics were associated with genotypes D4, D6, and B3. Other genotypes (B2, D5, D8, D9, G2, and H1) were only found in limited numbers of cases after importation from other continents. The genetic diversity of endemic D6(More)
Africa remains one of the major reservoirs of measles infection. Molecular epidemiological studies have permitted different measles virus isolates to be grouped into clades and genotypes; the major group, which has been identified as indigenous to Africa, is clade B. The viruses from epidemics in the Gambia (1993) and in the Cameroon (2001) were examined.(More)
Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus, was first discovered in Malaysia in 1998 in an outbreak of infection in pigs and humans and incurred a high fatality rate in humans. Fruit bats, living in vast areas extending from India to the western Pacific, were identified as the natural reservoir of the virus. However, the mechanisms that resulted in severe(More)
In 2008, measles reappeared in France in a series of outbreaks. During this period, 604 measles cases were reported to a routine surveillance system and 305 (50%) of these cases were then confirmed in the laboratory. To understand better the current epidemiological situation and the circulation of different measles strains, a phylogenetic characterization(More)
A measles virus (Hallé strain) cDNA library was prepared by cloning virus-induced mRNA directly into the expression vector PCD. Clones corresponding to the measles virus haemagglutinin (HA) gene were isolated and one, PCD-HA-15, which corresponded to the complete mRNA sequence, was further characterized. After transfection into COS-7 cells, measles virus HA(More)