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Double-stranded (ds)RNA is made as a by-product of viral replication. Synthetic dsRNA induces virtually all of the same systemic symptoms as acute viral infections, such as fever and malaise. In order to develop a model of respiratory viral infections (such as influenza) suitable for use in gene knockout mice (where the deleted gene may affect viral(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is associated with sleep regulation in health and disease. Previous studies assessed sleep in mice genetically deficient in the TNF-alpha 55-kDa receptor. In this study, spontaneous and influenza virus-induced sleep profiles were assessed in mice deficient in both the 55-kDa and 75-kDa TNF-alpha receptors [TNF-2R(More)
We report that mice with a targeted null mutation in the interferon type I receptor (IFN-RI), which cannot respond to such IFNs as IFNalpha and IFNbeta, have a 30% reduction in time spent in spontaneous rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) as a consequence of a reduced number of REMS episodes. Time spent in nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) was essentially(More)
Type I interferons (IFNs) include IFNalpha and IFNbeta, both of which are elevated in acute viral infections and both of which have been shown to induce symptoms such as fever and somnolence when administered in pharmacological doses. To investigate the role of type I IFNs in mediation of acute respiratory viral symptoms we examined sleep and body(More)
Kapás L, Bohnet SG, Traynor TR, Majde JA, Szentirmai É, Magrath P, Taishi P, Krueger JM. Spontaneous and influenza virus-induced sleep are altered in TNFdouble-receptor deficient mice. J Appl Physiol 105: 1187–1198, 2008. First published August 7, 2008; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.90388.2008.—Tumor necrosis factor(TNF) is associated with sleep regulation in(More)
The role of type I interferons (IFNs) in mediation of acute viral symptoms (fever, somnolence, anorexia, etc.) is unknown. To determine the role of type I IFN in selected symptom development, body temperature and sleep responses to a marginally lethal dose of X-31 influenza virus were examined in mice with a targeted mutation of the IFN receptor type I(More)
Influenza virus infection up-regulates cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and activates the somatotropic axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Mice with deficits in growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signaling (lit/lit mice) respond to influenza virus challenge with a progressive decrease in sleep and lower survival rates. Current(More)
Viral infections induce excess non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) in mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRH receptor) was previously identified as a candidate gene responsible for NREMS responses to influenza challenge in mice. The dwarf lit/lit mouse with a nonfunctional GHRH receptor was used to assess the role of the GHRH receptor in(More)
We present a constraint analysis methodology for Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) constraints. If the constraint set is found to be feasible we search for a minimal representation; otherwise, we search for an irreducible infeasible system. The work is based on the solution of a set covering problem where each row corresponds to a sample point and is(More)
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