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Fungal infections are increasing worldwide due to the marked rise in immunodeficiencies including AIDS; however, immune responses to fungi are poorly understood. Dectin-1 is the major mammalian pattern recognition receptor for the fungal component zymosan. Dectin-1 represents the prototype of innate non-Toll-like receptors (TLRs) containing immunoreceptor(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) respond to antigenic peptides presented on MHC class I molecules. On most cells, these peptides are exclusively of endogenous, cytosolic origin. Bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, however, harbor a unique pathway for MHC I presentation of exogenous antigens. This mechanism permits cross-presentation of(More)
Tolerance to food antigen manifests in the absence and/or suppression of antigen-specific immune responses locally in the gut but also systemically, a phenomenon known as oral tolerance. Oral tolerance is thought to originate in the gut-draining lymph nodes, which support the generation of FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. Here we use several mouse models(More)
We have recently identified T cells as important mediators of ischemic brain damage, but the contribution of the different T-cell subsets is unclear. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generally regarded as prototypic anti-inflammatory cells that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of(More)
Bacterial DNA and immunostimulatory (i.s.) synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) act as adjuvants for Th1 responses and cytotoxic T cell responses to proteinaceous antigens. Dendritic cells (DC) can be referred to as "nature's adjuvant" since they display the unique capacity to sensitize naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that bacterial DNA or i.s.(More)
Th cells producing IL-17 play a pro-inflammatory role at mucosal surfaces. Treg at the same sites dampen inflammation and prevent immunopathology. Th cells producing IL-17 (Th17) and Treg are thought to be distinct populations defined by expression of the transcription factors ROR-gammat and Foxp3, respectively. Here, we show that mouse CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg(More)
337 Mast cells are derived from myeloid progenitor cells and widely distributed throughout vascu-larized tissues. They participate in innate and adaptive immune defenses against bacteria and parasites and play a key role in IgE-mediated allergic diseases such as atopy and asthma, which are responsible for increasing global health problems (1). Moreover,(More)
Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine linked to lung inflammation, but its cellular origin and function remain unclear. Here we describe a reporter mouse strain designed to map the fate of cells that have activated IL-9. We found that during papain-induced lung inflammation, IL-9 production was largely restricted to innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-9(More)
Chronic helminth infections, such as schistosomes, are negatively associated with allergic disorders. Here, using B cell IL-10-deficient mice, Schistosoma mansoni-mediated protection against experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI) was shown to be specifically dependent on IL-10-producing B cells. To study the organs involved, we(More)
The transcription factor Foxp3 is essential for the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells, yet its expression is insufficient for establishing the Treg cell lineage. Here we showed that Treg cell development was achieved by the combination of two independent processes, i.e., the expression of Foxp3 and the establishment of Treg cell-specific CpG(More)