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Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) respond to antigenic peptides presented on MHC class I molecules. On most cells, these peptides are exclusively of endogenous, cytosolic origin. Bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, however, harbor a unique pathway for MHC I presentation of exogenous antigens. This mechanism permits cross-presentation of(More)
Fungal infections are increasing worldwide due to the marked rise in immunodeficiencies including AIDS; however, immune responses to fungi are poorly understood. Dectin-1 is the major mammalian pattern recognition receptor for the fungal component zymosan. Dectin-1 represents the prototype of innate non-Toll-like receptors (TLRs) containing immunoreceptor(More)
Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine linked to lung inflammation, but its cellular origin and function remain unclear. Here we describe a reporter mouse strain designed to map the fate of cells that have activated IL-9. We found that during papain-induced lung inflammation, IL-9 production was largely restricted to innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-9(More)
Bacterial DNA and immunostimulatory (i.s.) synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) act as adjuvants for Th1 responses and cytotoxic T cell responses to proteinaceous antigens. Dendritic cells (DC) can be referred to as "nature's adjuvant" since they display the unique capacity to sensitize naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that bacterial DNA or i.s.(More)
The scurfy mutant mouse strain suffers from a fatal lymphoproliferative disease leading to early death within 3-4 wk of age. A frame-shift mutation of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxp3 has been identified as the molecular cause of this multiorgan autoimmune disease. Foxp3 is a central control element in the development and function of regulatory T(More)
Targeting antigens to dendritic cell (DC)-specific receptors, such as DC-SIGN, induces potent T cell-mediated immune responses. DC-SIGN is a transmembrane C-type lectin receptor with a long extracellular neck region and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Thus far, only antibodies binding the CRD have been used to target antigens to DC-SIGN. We(More)
Tolerance to food antigen manifests in the absence and/or suppression of antigen-specific immune responses locally in the gut but also systemically, a phenomenon known as oral tolerance. Oral tolerance is thought to originate in the gut-draining lymph nodes, which support the generation of FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. Here we use several mouse models(More)
Certain bacterial immunostimulatory (i.s.) DNA sequences containing unmethylated CpG motifs stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APC) to express a full complement of costimulatory molecules and to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. While IL-12 is key to their T helper cell (Th)1-promoting adjuvant activity,(More)
Unmethylated CpG motifs in bacterial DNA, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) activate dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages in a CD40-CD40 ligand-independent fashion. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved we focused on the cellular uptake of CpG ODN, the need for endosomal maturation and the role of the stress kinase pathway.(More)