Tim Sparwasser

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Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) respond to antigenic peptides presented on MHC class I molecules. On most cells, these peptides are exclusively of endogenous, cytosolic origin. Bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, however, harbor a unique pathway for MHC I presentation of exogenous antigens. This mechanism permits cross-presentation of(More)
Fungal infections are increasing worldwide due to the marked rise in immunodeficiencies including AIDS; however, immune responses to fungi are poorly understood. Dectin-1 is the major mammalian pattern recognition receptor for the fungal component zymosan. Dectin-1 represents the prototype of innate non-Toll-like receptors (TLRs) containing immunoreceptor(More)
The scurfy mutant mouse strain suffers from a fatal lymphoproliferative disease leading to early death within 3-4 wk of age. A frame-shift mutation of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxp3 has been identified as the molecular cause of this multiorgan autoimmune disease. Foxp3 is a central control element in the development and function of regulatory T(More)
Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a cytokine linked to lung inflammation, but its cellular origin and function remain unclear. Here we describe a reporter mouse strain designed to map the fate of cells that have activated IL-9. We found that during papain-induced lung inflammation, IL-9 production was largely restricted to innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). IL-9(More)
Targeting antigens to dendritic cell (DC)-specific receptors, such as DC-SIGN, induces potent T cell-mediated immune responses. DC-SIGN is a transmembrane C-type lectin receptor with a long extracellular neck region and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Thus far, only antibodies binding the CRD have been used to target antigens to DC-SIGN. We(More)
Bacterial DNA and immunostimulatory (i.s.) synthetic CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) act as adjuvants for Th1 responses and cytotoxic T cell responses to proteinaceous antigens. Dendritic cells (DC) can be referred to as "nature's adjuvant" since they display the unique capacity to sensitize naive T cells. Here, we demonstrate that bacterial DNA or i.s.(More)
Th cells producing IL-17 play a pro-inflammatory role at mucosal surfaces. Treg at the same sites dampen inflammation and prevent immunopathology. Th cells producing IL-17 (Th17) and Treg are thought to be distinct populations defined by expression of the transcription factors ROR-gammat and Foxp3, respectively. Here, we show that mouse CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg(More)
Unmethylated CpG motifs in bacterial DNA, plasmid DNA and synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) activate dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages in a CD40-CD40 ligand-independent fashion. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved we focused on the cellular uptake of CpG ODN, the need for endosomal maturation and the role of the stress kinase pathway.(More)
Tolerance to food antigen manifests in the absence and/or suppression of antigen-specific immune responses locally in the gut but also systemically, a phenomenon known as oral tolerance. Oral tolerance is thought to originate in the gut-draining lymph nodes, which support the generation of FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. Here we use several mouse models(More)
CD73 is a cell-surface enzyme that suppresses immune responses by producing extracellular adenosine. In this study, we employed CD73 gene-targeted mice to investigate the role of host-derived CD73 on antitumor immunity and tumor cell metastasis. We found that CD73 ablation significantly suppressed the growth of ovalbumin-expressing MC38 colon cancer, EG7(More)