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In many complex networks the vertices are ordered in time, and edges represent causal connections. We propose methods of analysing such directed acyclic graphs taking into account the constraints of causality and highlighting the causal structure. We illustrate our approach using citation networks formed from academic papers, patents, and US Supreme Court(More)
The rank of a journal based on simple citation information is a popular measure. The simplicity and availability of rankings such as Impact Factor, Eigenfactor and SciMago Journal Rank based on trusted commercial sources ensures their widespread use for many important tasks despite the well-known limitations of such rankings. In this paper we look at an(More)
Sustained release procainamide tablets were administered to 34 patients 48 hours after the onset of an acute myocardial infarct. Therapeutic blood levels of procainamide in the range of 4 to 8 mug/ml were consistently achieved using an 8-hourly maintenance dose of 1.5g after an initial loading dose of 2g. In contrast conventional procainamide capsules(More)
The distribution of the number of academic publications against citation count for papers published in the same year is remarkably similar from year to year. We characterise the shape of such distributions by a ‘width’, $$\sigma ^2$$ σ 2 , associated with fitting a log-normal to each distribution, and find the width to be approximately constant for(More)
Serum samples from patients admitted to a coronary care unit with a history of acute chest pain suggestive of myocardial infarction in the previous 12 h were obtained on admission and at 6 and 12 h, thereafter. Creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, CK-MM sub-bands, myoglobin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) isoenzymes were examined. Changes were evaluated(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the route to diagnosis for patients with cancer is important to improve the diagnostic pathway and therefore outcomes. We aimed to investigate routes to diagnosis for patients with sarcoma in England. METHODS National patient level datasets relating to 7716 soft tissue and 1240 bone sarcoma patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2008(More)
Although it is now recognised as a rare complication of cardiac surgery, constrictive pericarditis was diagnosed in three patients after coronary artery bypass surgery. The time interval between cardiac surgery and the development of constrictive features varied from two to six weeks. All three patients presented with severe congestive heart failure.(More)