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OBJECTIVE This investigation aims to determine if more expensive running shoes provide better cushioning of plantar pressure and are more comfortable than low-cost alternatives from the same brand. METHODS Three pairs of running shoes were purchased from three different manufacturers at three different price ranges: low (40-45 pounds), medium (60-65(More)
Lateral ankle ligaments are injured by hyperinversion of the foot. Foot position is controlled by the lower limb muscles. Awareness of foot position is impaired by wearing shoes. We aimed to determine the influence of wearing shoes upon muscle activity. Sixty-two healthy subjects underwent the same measurements, barefoot and with standardized shoes in a(More)
BACKGROUND The ankle is one of the most commonly injured joints with inversion injury affecting its lateral ligament complex being the commonest of all. Shoes are one of the known risk factors for such an injury. OBJECTIVE This study seeks to examine the impact of varying shoe configurations on the protective function of the peroneus longus muscle during(More)
Analysis of force in minimal access surgery (MAS) is important for instrument design, surgical simulators, and in the understanding of tissue trauma incurred during surgery. The aim of this study is to develop a force measuring system for use with different instruments in clinical practice. Strain gauges were connected to both arms of a standard -5 mm(More)
Over-tightening of cortical bone screws in osteoporotic bone results in weak fixation. Once a screw is over-tightened and the bone thread form is stripped, there are limited means at the surgeon's disposal to rescue the situation, none of them entirely satisfactory. We describe a simple device that is specifically designed to resolve this problem. It(More)
BACKGROUND Severe cervical spine injury in rugby union (rugby) exerts a major impact on the individual who sustains the injury and on the broader society. Since the late 1970s, authors of rugby case report studies have postulated that the underlying mechanism of cervical spine injury is hyperflexion of the neck. However, this is in conflict with findings(More)
BACKGROUND The recent popularity of domestic trampolines has seen a corresponding increase in injured children. Most injuries happen on the trampoline mat when there are multiple users present. This study sought to examine and simulate the forces and energy transferred to a child's limbs when trampolining with another person of greater mass. METHODS The(More)
To characterise changes in vertebral dimension in an ovine model of scoliosis and determine whether a reproducible curvature could be created that would be suitable for future testing of curve modifying surgical implants. At a mean age of 5 weeks, 28 Scottish blackface sheep were anaesthetised. A 4 mm braided synthetic tape was laid under the left lamina of(More)
First, to determine whether scoliosis development could be limited or reversed by growth when a novel modular hinged implant was fixed to the convexity of a scoliosis created by contralateral rib and laminar tethering and unilateral rib resection in a sheep model. Second, to assess the effect and performance of the implant in normal non-tethered sheep. At 5(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine whether toe sliding is more likely to cause knee injuries than flatfoot sliding in curling. METHODS Twelve curlers participated in the study, each delivering 12 stones. Six stones per volunteer were delivered using a flatfoot slide and six were delivered using a toe slide. The Pedar-X in-shoe pressure(More)