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Analysis of force in minimal access surgery (MAS) is important for instrument design, surgical simulators, and in the understanding of tissue trauma incurred during surgery. The aim of this study is to develop a force measuring system for use with different instruments in clinical practice. Strain gauges were connected to both arms of a standard -5 mm(More)
Over-tightening of cortical bone screws in osteoporotic bone results in weak fixation. Once a screw is over-tightened and the bone thread form is stripped, there are limited means at the surgeon's disposal to rescue the situation, none of them entirely satisfactory. We describe a simple device that is specifically designed to resolve this problem. It(More)
To characterise changes in vertebral dimension in an ovine model of scoliosis and determine whether a reproducible curvature could be created that would be suitable for future testing of curve modifying surgical implants. At a mean age of 5 weeks, 28 Scottish blackface sheep were anaesthetised. A 4 mm braided synthetic tape was laid under the left lamina of(More)
Lateral ankle ligaments are injured by hyperinversion of the foot. Foot position is controlled by the lower limb muscles. Awareness of foot position is impaired by wearing shoes. We aimed to determine the influence of wearing shoes upon muscle activity. Sixty-two healthy subjects underwent the same measurements, barefoot and with standardized shoes in a(More)
OBJECTIVE This investigation aims to determine if more expensive running shoes provide better cushioning of plantar pressure and are more comfortable than low-cost alternatives from the same brand. METHODS Three pairs of running shoes were purchased from three different manufacturers at three different price ranges: low (40-45 pounds), medium (60-65(More)
BACKGROUND Severe cervical spine injury in rugby union (rugby) exerts a major impact on the individual who sustains the injury and on the broader society. Since the late 1970s, authors of rugby case report studies have postulated that the underlying mechanism of cervical spine injury is hyperflexion of the neck. However, this is in conflict with findings(More)
BACKGROUND The ankle is one of the most commonly injured joints with inversion injury affecting its lateral ligament complex being the commonest of all. Shoes are one of the known risk factors for such an injury. OBJECTIVE This study seeks to examine the impact of varying shoe configurations on the protective function of the peroneus longus muscle during(More)
BACKGROUND Lateral epicondylitis (LE) occurs in almost half of all tennis players. Racket-string tension is considered to be an important factor influencing the development of LE. No literature yet exists that substantiates how string-tension affects force transmission to the elbow, as implicated in LE development. We establish a quantitative relationship(More)
BACKGROUND The lateral ligament injury of the ankle is acknowledged to be the most common ankle injury sustained in sport. Increased peroneus longus muscle contraction in the shod population has already been documented. This study aimed to quantify the effect of shoe sole's varying thickness on peroneus longus muscle activity. METHODS Electromyographic(More)