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We investigated force enhancement following stretching in the in situ cat soleus muscle on the ascending and descending limb of the force-length relationship by varying the amount and speed of stretching and the frequency of activation (5 Hz, 30 Hz). There was a small but consistent (P<0.05) amount of force enhancement following muscle stretching on the(More)
We studied force-sharing behavior between the cat medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles by direct measurement of the muscle forces and electromyographic activities (EMGs), muscle lengths, speeds of contraction, joint kinematics and kinetics, for a variety of locomotor conditions. Previous studies suggested that the modulation of MG force and(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the history dependence of force production during and following stretch-shortening and shortening-stretch cycles in mammalian skeletal muscle. Thirty-three different isometric, stretch, shortening, stretch-shortening and shortening-stretch experiments were preformed in cat soleus (n=8) using previously established(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have demonstrated the existence era reflex response, measurable by surface electromyography (sEMG), after manually delivered spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). This reflex response has been characterized as consistent, reproducible within individual subjects, and nonlocal because it extends beyond the site of manipulation.(More)
In a recent manuscript, Edman (1996) reported that force depression following shortening was a transient phenomenon. A transient response would not fit into the mechanism of force depression suggested by Herzog and Leonard (1997) who argued that force depression following shortening was associated with a stress-related inhibition of cross-bridge attachments(More)
The purpose of this study was to measure isometric force-length properties of cat soleus, gastrocnemius and plantaris muscle-tendon units, and to relate these properties to the functional demands of these muscles during everyday locomotor activities. Isometric force-length properties were determined using an in situ preparation, where forces were measured(More)
It is generally accepted that force enhancement in skeletal muscles increases with increasing stretch magnitudes. However, this property has not been tested across supra-physiological stretch magnitudes and different muscle lengths, thus it is not known whether this is a generic property of skeletal muscle, or merely a property that holds for small stretch(More)
It has been accepted for half a century that, for a given level of activation, the steady-state isometric force of a muscle sarcomere depends exclusively on the amount of overlap between the contractile filaments actin and myosin, or equivalently sarcomere length (Gordon AM et al., J Physiol 184: 170-192, 1966). Moreover, according to the generally accepted(More)
Muscle shortening and stretch are associated with force depression and force enhancement, respectively. Previously, we have investigated the effect of combined dynamic contractions (i.e. a single shortening-stretch and stretch-shortening cycle) on force production (Herzog and Leonard, 2000). In order to investigate the relationship between force depression(More)
Botulinum type-A (BTX-A) neurotoxin exerts a paralytic effect on muscles and is used increasingly to treat a variety of muscle spasticity disorders. While its pathogenesis for muscle-induced weakness has been well elucidated, the functional effects of BTX-A administration are incomplete. Specifically, weakness as a function of muscle length and stimulation(More)