Learn More
We have used an enzyme-based, twin-barrelled sensor to measure adenosine release during hypoxia in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices in conjunction with simultaneous extracellular field recordings of excitatory synaptic transmission. When loaded with a combination of adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase, the sensor(More)
In addition to affecting respiration and vascular tone, deviations from normal CO(2) alter pH, consciousness, and seizure propensity. Outside the brainstem, however, the mechanisms by which CO(2) levels modify neuronal function are unknown. In the hippocampal slice preparation, increasing CO(2), and thus decreasing pH, increased the extracellular(More)
BACKGROUND Many causes of death are directly attributable to the toxic effects of alcohol and deaths from these causes are increasing in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in alcohol-related mortality in relation to socioeconomic deprivation, urban-rural location and age within a national context. METHODS An ecological(More)
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICA riboside; Acadesine) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in intact cells, and is reported to exert protective effects in the mammalian CNS. In rat cerebrocortical brain slices, AMPK was activated by metabolic stress (ischaemia > hypoxia > aglycaemia) and AICA riboside (0.1-10 mm). Activation of AMPK by(More)
Adenosine plays a major modulatory and neuroprotective role in the mammalian CNS. During cerebral metabolic stress, such as hypoxia or ischemia, the increase in extracellular adenosine inhibits excitatory synaptic transmission onto vulnerable neurons via presynaptic adenosine A(1) receptors, thereby reducing the activation of postsynaptic glutamate(More)
Adenosine is a powerful modulator of neuronal function in the mammalian central nervous system. During a variety of insults to the brain, adenosine is released in large quantities and exerts a neuroprotective influence largely via the A(1) receptor, which inhibits glutamate release and neuronal activity. Using novel enzyme-based adenosine sensors, which(More)
Adenosine is released from the compromised brain and exerts a predominately neuroprotective influence. However, the time-course of adenosine release and its relationship to synaptic activity during metabolic stress is not fully understood. Here, we describe experiments using an enzyme-based adenosine sensor to show that adenosine potently (IC50(More)
BACKGROUND A measure of the socioeconomic deprivation experienced by the registered patient population of a general practice is of interest because it can be used to explore the association between deprivation and a wide range of other variables measured at practice level. If patient level geographical data are available a population weighted mean(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Current evidence suggests that stroke mortality and hospital admissions should be higher in areas with elevated levels of outdoor air pollution because of the combined acute and chronic exposure effects of air pollution. We examined this hypothesis using a small-area level ecological correlation study. METHODS We used 1030 census(More)