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We have used an enzyme-based, twin-barrelled sensor to measure adenosine release during hypoxia in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices in conjunction with simultaneous extracellular field recordings of excitatory synaptic transmission. When loaded with a combination of adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase, the sensor(More)
In addition to affecting respiration and vascular tone, deviations from normal CO(2) alter pH, consciousness, and seizure propensity. Outside the brainstem, however, the mechanisms by which CO(2) levels modify neuronal function are unknown. In the hippocampal slice preparation, increasing CO(2), and thus decreasing pH, increased the extracellular(More)
5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICA riboside; Acadesine) activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in intact cells, and is reported to exert protective effects in the mammalian CNS. In rat cerebrocortical brain slices, AMPK was activated by metabolic stress (ischaemia > hypoxia > aglycaemia) and AICA riboside (0.1-10 mm). Activation of AMPK by(More)
Adenosine plays a major modulatory and neuroprotective role in the mammalian CNS. During cerebral metabolic stress, such as hypoxia or ischemia, the increase in extracellular adenosine inhibits excitatory synaptic transmission onto vulnerable neurons via presynaptic adenosine A(1) receptors, thereby reducing the activation of postsynaptic glutamate(More)
Adenosine is a powerful modulator of neuronal function in the mammalian central nervous system. During a variety of insults to the brain, adenosine is released in large quantities and exerts a neuroprotective influence largely via the A(1) receptor, which inhibits glutamate release and neuronal activity. Using novel enzyme-based adenosine sensors, which(More)
Adenosine is released from the compromised brain and exerts a predominately neuroprotective influence. However, the time-course of adenosine release and its relationship to synaptic activity during metabolic stress is not fully understood. Here, we describe experiments using an enzyme-based adenosine sensor to show that adenosine potently (IC50(More)
BACKGROUND A measure of the socioeconomic deprivation experienced by the registered patient population of a general practice is of interest because it can be used to explore the association between deprivation and a wide range of other variables measured at practice level. If patient level geographical data are available a population weighted mean(More)
The depression of excitatory synaptic transmission by hypoxia in area CA1 of the hippocampus is largely dependent upon the activation of adenosine A(1) receptors on presynaptic glutamatergic terminals. As well as adenosine, norepinephrine levels increase in the hypoxic/ischemic hippocampus. We sought to determine the influence of alpha- and(More)
Lack of access to affordable healthy foods has been suggested to be a contributory factor to poor diet. This study investigated associations between diet and access to supermarkets, transport, fruit and vegetable price and deprivation, in a region divergent in geography and socio-economic indices. A postal survey of 1000 addresses (response rate 42%)(More)
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. About 5.3 million people die every year from stroke worldwide with over 9 million people surviving at any one time after suffering a stroke. About 1 in 4 men and 1 in 5 women aged 45 years will suffer a stroke if they live to their 85th year. It is estimated that by 2023 there will be an absolute increase in(More)