Tim P. Levine

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Cells regulate the biophysical properties of their membranes by coordinated synthesis of different classes of lipids. Here, we identified a highly dynamic feedback mechanism by which the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can regulate phospholipid biosynthesis. Phosphatidic acid on the endoplasmic reticulum directly bound to the soluble transcriptional(More)
We have previously shown that p115, a vesicle docking protein, binds to two proteins (p130 and p400) in detergent extracts of Golgi membranes. p130 was identified as GM130, a Golgi matrix protein, and was shown to act as a membrane receptor for p115. p400 has now been identified as giantin, a Golgi membrane protein with most of its mass projecting into the(More)
At least two distinct ATPases, NSF and p97, are known to be involved in the heterotypic fusion of transport vesicles with their target membranes and the homotypic fusion of membrane compartments. The NSF-mediated fusion pathway is the best characterized, many of the components having been identified and their functions analysed. In contrast, none of the(More)
Understanding how membrane lipids achieve their non-random distribution in cells is a key challenge in cell biology at present. In addition to being sorted into vesicles that can cross distances of up to one metre, there are other mechanisms that mediate the transport of lipids within a range of a few nanometres. These include transbilayer flip-flop(More)
The surface potential of biological membranes varies according to their lipid composition. We devised genetically encoded probes to assess surface potential in intact cells. These probes revealed marked, localized alterations in the charge of the inner surface of the plasma membrane of macrophages during the course of phagocytosis. Hydrolysis of(More)
Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) is the only protein known to bind specifically to the group of oxysterols with potent effects on cholesterol homeostasis. Although the function of OSBP is currently unknown, an important role is implicated by the existence of multiple homologues in all eukaryotes so far examined. OSBP and a subset of homologues contain(More)
Intracellular trafficking is not mediated exclusively by vesicles. Additional, non-vesicular mechanisms transport material, in particular small molecules such as lipids and Ca(2+) ions, from one organelle to another. This transport occurs at narrow cytoplasmic gaps called membrane contact sites (MCSs), at which two organelles come into close apposition.(More)
The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells differs in lipid composition from most of the internal organelles, presumably reflecting differences in many of its functions. In particular, the plasma membrane is rich in sphingolipids and sterols, one property of which is to decrease the permeability and increase the thickness of lipid bilayers. In this paper, we(More)
The vesicle docking protein p115 showed saturable, high affinity binding to interphase Golgi membranes. The affinity of binding was up to 20-fold lower using membranes preincubated with mitotic cytosol. In contrast, binding was not affected by mitotic pretreatment of p115. The reduction in p115 binding was mediated by phosphorylation, could be induced by a(More)
Inter-organelle membrane contact sites are zones where heterologous membranes, usually the endoplasmic reticulum plus a partner organelle, come into close apposition. These sites are very poorly understood because so few of their components have been identified; however, it is clear that they are specialised for traffic of material and information between(More)