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Monoclonal antibodies that recognize individual polypeptides of the outer arm dyneins of Chlamydomonas flagella were obtained and used to study the structural relationships between the various polypeptides. Immunoblot analysis showed that the gamma heavy chain of 12S dynein and the alpha and beta heavy chains and Mr 69,000 intermediate chain of 18S dynein(More)
We have constructed a computational platform suitable for examining emergence of shape homeostasis in simple three-dimensional cellular systems. An embryo phenotype results from a developmental process starting with a single cell and its genome. When coupled to an evolutionary search, this platform can evolve embryos with particular stable shapes and high(More)
We have developed conditions for the efficient electrotransfer from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets of a broad size range of proteins (Mr 8,000 to Mr greater than 400,000). The important features of this procedure include a two-step electrotransfer, beginning with elution of low-molecular-weight polypeptides at a low current density(More)
Our approach to tissue modeling incorporates biologically derived primitives into a computational engine (CellSim) coupled with a genetic search algorithm. By expanding an evolved synthetic genome CellSim is capable of developing a virtual tissue with higher order properties. Using primitives based on cell signaling, gene networks, cell division, growth,(More)
To help us understand the nature of information processing in living systems, biology needs a new theoretical framework that is amenable to computational approaches. Recent progress in cell and molecular biology has made it clear that the " central dogma " (DNA AE RNA AE protein) is an overly simplistic concept. The goals of this paper are: 1) to specify(More)
Building effective computational models of living systemsrequires both a sound conceptual basis and an accurate scheme ofimplementation. Basic biological principles must be clearlyarticulated to capture their essential features or logic but notreach beyond legitimate bounds. This paper analyzes therelationships among genotype, phenotype, and ontogeny,(More)
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