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Research involving event-related brain potentials has revealed that anxiety is associated with enhanced error monitoring, as reflected in increased amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN). The nature of the relationship between anxiety and error monitoring is unclear, however. Through meta-analysis and a critical review of the literature, we argue(More)
The late positive potential (LPP) is a commonly used event-related potential (ERP) in the study of emotion and emotion regulation. The LPP has also been evaluated as a neural marker of affective psychopathology. The psychometric properties of this component have not been examined, however. The current study was conducted with the aim of addressing two(More)
Positively reinterpreting negative experiences is important for psychological well-being and represents a key mechanism of cognitive-behavioral therapies for emotional problems. Yet, little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie this process and how they relate to clinically relevant individual differences. Here we demonstrate using(More)
Emotional faces are motivationally salient stimuli that automatically capture attention and rapidly potentiate neural processing. Because of their superior temporal resolution, scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) are ideal for examining rapid changes in neural activity. Some reports have found larger ERPs for fearful and angry faces compared with(More)
Anxiety is associated with enhanced action monitoring. Research to date, however, has employed extreme group designs that fail to address the full spectrum of anxiety, and in which overlapping and co-occurring symptoms obscure the exact nature of the relationships between anxiety and action monitoring. To address these limitations, relationships between(More)
How well people bounce back from mistakes depends on their beliefs about learning and intelligence. For individuals with a growth mind-set, who believe intelligence develops through effort, mistakes are seen as opportunities to learn and improve. For individuals with a fixed mind-set, who believe intelligence is a stable characteristic, mistakes indicate(More)
Cognitive deficits are now widely recognized to be an important component of anxiety. In particular, anxiety is thought to restrict the capacity of working memory by competing with task-relevant processes. The evidence for this claim, however, has been mixed. Although some studies have found restricted working memory in anxiety, others have not. Within(More)
(1) We clarify that our view does in fact place motivation and emotion centerstage in the anxiety-ERN relationship. (2) We reiterate that there is currently little compelling evidence that an enlarged ERN in anxious individuals reflects “the disposition to respond more strongly to uncertain threat” (Proudfit et al., 2013, p. 1). (3) We emphasize that our(More)
Heightened sensitivity to failure and negative information is thought to be an important maintenance mechanism for symptoms of depression. However, the specific neural and behavioral correlates of the abnormal reactions to errors associated with depression are not yet well understood. The present study was designed to shed new light on this issue by(More)