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BACKGROUND An open-label study indicated that selective depletion of B cells with the use of rituximab led to sustained clinical improvements for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To confirm these observations, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. METHODS We randomly assigned 161 patients who had active rheumatoid arthritis despite(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of three dosing and repeat treatment regimens of rituximab (RTX) plus MTX in patients with active RA. METHODS Patients with active RA despite stable MTX (10-25 mg/week) were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment regimens comprising two courses of RTX given 24 weeks apart: 2 x 500 and 2 x 500 mg; 2 x(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if treatment with a B cell-targeted therapy can inhibit the progression of structural joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), exhibiting an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. METHODS In this phase III study, patients with an inadequate response to a TNF inhibitor and receiving(More)
Neuronal injury may be dependent upon the generation of the free radical nitric oxide (NO) and the subsequent induction of programmed cell death (PCD). Although the nature of this injury may be both preventable and reversible, the underlying mechanisms that mediate PCD are not well understood. Using the agent nicotinamide as an investigative tool in primary(More)
Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is frequently caused by a mutation (G1896A) in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) precore (PC) reading frame that creates a stop codon, causing premature termination of the PC protein. During lamivudine treatment, drug resistance develops at a similar rate in HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative CHB.(More)
Long-term lamivudine (LMV) treatment of chronic hepatitis B almost inevitably engenders viral resistance. Mutations that result in the replacement of the methionine at position 204 of the deoxynucleoside triphosphate-binding site of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) reverse transcriptase (rt) by isoleucine, valine, or (rarely) serine (rtM204I/V/S) confer(More)
OBJECTIVES Rituximab is an effective treatment in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of the IMAGE study was to determine the efficacy of rituximab in the prevention of joint damage and its safety in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients initiating treatment with MTX. METHODS In this double-blind randomised(More)
BACKGROUND In the IMAGEstudy, rituximab plus methotrexate (MTX) inhibited joint damage and improved clinical outcomes at 1 year in MTX-naïve patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess joint damage progression and clinical outcomes over 2 years. METHODS Patients (n=755) were randomised to receive(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a recently identified homologue of ACE that may counterregulate the actions of angiotensin (Ang) II by facilitating its breakdown to Ang 1-7. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis but the role of ACE2 in liver disease is not known. AIMS This study(More)