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Spinal cord injury (SCI) often affects a person's ability to perform critical activities of daily living and can negatively affect his or her quality of life. Assistive technology aims to bridge this gap in order to augment function and increase independence. It is critical to involve consumers in the design and evaluation process as new technologies such(More)
Individuals with dysfunctional bladders may benefit from devices that track the bladder state. Recordings from pelvic and sacral nerve cuffs can detect bladder contractions, however they often have low signal quality and are susceptible to interference from non-bladder signals. Microelectrode recordings from sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons may(More)
AIMS Reflex bladder excitation has been demonstrated by stimulation of the pudendal nerve and several of its distal branches. However, excitation parameters have not been consistent and the relationship to anatomical locations within the urethra has not been fully investigated. An improved understanding of the lower urinary tract neurophysiology will(More)
We evaluated variable patterns of pudendal nerve (PN) stimuli for reflex bladder excitation. Reflex activation of the bladder has been demonstrated previously with 20-33 Hz continuous stimulation of PN afferents. Neuronal circuits accessed by afferent mediated pathways may respond better to physiological patterned stimuli than continuous stimulation.(More)
The development of bladder and bowel neuroprostheses may benefit from the use of sensory feedback. We evaluated the use of high-density penetrating microelectrode arrays in sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for recording bladder and perineal afferent activity. Arrays were inserted in S1 and S2 DRG in three anesthetized cats. Neural signals were recorded(More)
CONTEXT Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of function and sensation below the level of the lesion. Neuroprosthetic technology has been developed to help restore motor and autonomic functions as well as to provide sensory feedback. FINDINGS This paper provides an overview of neuroprosthetic technology that aims to address the priorities for(More)
Reflex bladder excitation has been evoked via pudendal nerve, pudendal nerve branch and intraurethral stimulation; however, afferent-evoked bladder emptying has been less efficient than direct activation of the bladder via sacral root stimulation. A stimulation method that improves activation of the urethra-bladder excitatory reflex with minimal sphincter(More)
Patterned microstimulation of muscle and cutaneous afferent neurons may provide tactile and proprioceptive feedback to users of advanced prosthetic limbs. However, it is unclear what types of stimulation patterns will be effective, and the parameter space for creating these patterns is prohibitively large to explore systematically using only psychophysics(More)
OBJECTIVE Functional electrical stimulation (FES) approaches often utilize an open-loop controller to drive state transitions. The addition of sensory feedback may allow for closed-loop control that can respond effectively to perturbations and muscle fatigue. APPROACH We evaluated the use of natural sensory nerve signals obtained with penetrating(More)
AIMS Pudendal afferent fibers can be excited using electrical stimulation to evoke reflex bladder activity. While this approach shows promise for restoring bladder function, stimulation of desired pathways, and integration of afferent signals for sensory feedback remains challenging. At sacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG), the convergence of pelvic and(More)