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  • Tim Lewens
  • 2013
Synthetic biology is often described as a project that applies rational design methods to the organic world. Although humans have influenced organic lineages in many ways, it is nonetheless reasonable to place synthetic biology towards one end of a continuum between purely 'blind' processes of organic modification at one extreme, and wholly rational,(More)
Unreamed interlocked humeral nailing for stabilisation of acute humeral fractures was introduced a decade ago. Antegrade and retrograde nail insertion are equally popular. The role of nailing as opposed to plating of humeral fractures is the subject of continuous debate. Between 1997 and 2005, 99 acute fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively(More)
The best way to distinguish treatment from research is by their functions. This mode of distinction fits well with the basic ethical work that needs to be carried out. The distinction needs to serve as an ethical flag, highlighting areas in which the goals of doctors and patients are more likely than usual to diverge. The distinction also allows us to(More)
The treatment of phosphate diabetes and hyperphosphatasia requires an interdisciplinary therapy concept between paediatricians and orthopaedic surgeons. The surgical challenge is the correction of the multiplanar bending deformities and the pathological fractures. Different techniques are discussed in the literature without an outstanding recommendation for(More)
  • Tim Lewens
  • 2009
Many biologists, historians and philosophers of biology have followed Mayr in rejecting so-called "typological thinking." It should therefore be a cause for concern that modern evolutionary-developmental biology appears committed to various typological notions. This article distinguishes three accusations that have been levelled against the typological(More)
If we assume that "enhancement" names all efforts to boost human mental and physical capacities beyond the normal upper range found in our species, then enhancement covers such a broad range of interventions that it becomes implausible to think that there is any generic ethical case to be made either for or against it. Michael Sandel has recently made such(More)