Tim Leonard

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We studied force-sharing behavior between the cat medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) muscles by direct measurement of the muscle forces and electromyographic activities (EMGs), muscle lengths, speeds of contraction, joint kinematics and kinetics, for a variety of locomotor conditions. Previous studies suggested that the modulation of MG force and(More)
According to the force-length relationship, cat soleus optimal sarcomere length should lie between 2.3-2.5μm. Rack and Westbury (1969) found optimal sarcomere length around 2.8- 3.0μm. The purpose of this study was to repeat their study to check for these discrepancies between the expected and the measured optimal length. The soleus muscle of both hindlimbs(More)
BACKGROUND Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and quadriceps muscle weakness are considered to be important risk factors for aberrant patellar tracking and subsequent patellofemoral osteoarthritis. However, data from in vivo experiments looking at dynamic patellar joint kinematics and muscle force are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to(More)
We cannot apply PODC methodologies to industrial designs without formal models of the designs. Formal models are usually hard to find. We have built a tool that extracts formal models directly from design documents. Protocol verification consists of three easy steps: find a protocol , model the protocol, and verify the protocol. Go ahead, laugh at the joke,(More)
In typical muscle models, it is often assumed that the contractile element (fascicle) length depends exclusively on the instantaneous muscle-tendon length and the instantaneous muscle force. In order to test whether the instantaneous fascicle length during dynamic contractions can be predicted from muscle-tendon length and force, fascicle lengths,(More)
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