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We describe a classification scheme for bursting oscillations which encompasses many of those found in the literature on bursting in excitable media. This is an extension of the scheme of Rinzel (in Mathematical Topics in Population Biology, Springer, Berlin, 1987), put in the context of a sequence of horizontal cuts through a two-parameter bifurcation(More)
When standing quietly, human upright stance is typically approximated as a single segment inverted pendulum. In contrast, investigations which perturb upright stance with support surface translations or visual driving stimuli have shown that the body behaves like a two-segment pendulum, displaying both in-phase and anti-phase patterns between the upper and(More)
 We analyze the stochastic structure of postural sway and demonstrate that this structure imposes important constraints on models of postural control. Linear stochastic models of various orders were fit to the center-of-mass trajectories of subjects during quiet stance in four sensory conditions: (i) light touch and vision, (ii) light touch, (iii) vision,(More)
The problem of how the nervous system fuses sensory information from multiple modalities for upright stance control remains largely unsolved. It is well established that the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory modalities provide position and rate (e.g., velocity, acceleration) information for estimation of body dynamics. However, it is unknown whether any(More)
We examined the generally held belief that the postural control system is able to re-weight its available sensory inputs in order to optimize stance control in altered sensory environments. Our view is that previous accounts of sensory re-weighting provide only indirect evidence, which is subject to alternative explanations. The present results provide(More)
This study tested the hypotheses that all major joints along the longitudinal axis of the body are equally active during quiet standing and that their motions are coordinated to stabilize the spatial positions of the center of mass (CM) and head. Analyses of the effect of joint configuration variance on the stability of the CM and head positions were(More)
Unexplained falls in older adults are thought to arise from subtle deficits in multiple components of the postural control system, including peripheral sensory loss and central sensory processing. One commonly proposed central sensory processing deficit is a decline in the adaptive use of changing or conflicting sensory inputs for estimating body dynamics,(More)
Reweighting sensory information adaptively is considered critical for flexible postural control, but little is known of the time scale of the reweighting process. We analyzed the transient dynamics of sensory reweighting in a previously published nonlinear adaptive model of sensory integration in the human postural control system. The model’s dynamics of(More)
We determined properties of the plant during human upright stance using a closed-loop system identification method originally applied to human postural control by another group. To identify the plant, which was operationally defined as the mapping from muscle activation (rectified EMG signals) to body segment angles, we rotated the visual scene about the(More)
Despite extensive research on the influence of visual, vestibular and somatosensory information on human postural control, it remains unclear how these sensory channels are fused for self-orientation. The focus of the present study was to test whether a linear additive model could account for the fusion of touch and vision for postural control. We(More)