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We describe a classification scheme for bursting oscillations which encompasses many of those found in the literature on bursting in excitable media. This is an extension of the scheme of Rinzel (in Mathematical Topics in Population Biology, Springer, Berlin, 1987), put in the context of a sequence of horizontal cuts through a two-parameter bifurcation(More)
Human movement control is inherently stochastic, requiring continuous estimation of self-motion based upon noisy sensory inputs. The nervous system must determine which sensory signals are relevant on a time scale that enables successful behavior. In human stance control, failure to effectively adapt to changing sensory contexts could lead to injurious(More)
Despite extensive research on the influence of visual, vestibular and somatosensory information on human postural control, it remains unclear how these sensory channels are fused for self-orientation. The focus of the present study was to test whether a linear additive model could account for the fusion of touch and vision for postural control. We(More)
When standing quietly, human upright stance is typically approximated as a single segment inverted pendulum. In contrast, investigations which perturb upright stance with support surface translations or visual driving stimuli have shown that the body behaves like a two-segment pendulum, displaying both in-phase and anti-phase patterns between the upper and(More)
A fundamental issue in motor control is how to determine the task goals for a given behavior. Here, we address this question by separately identifying the musculoskeletal and feedback components of the human postural control loop. Eighteen subjects were perturbed by two mechanical perturbations (gentle pulling from behind at waist and shoulder levels) and(More)
We determined properties of the plant during human upright stance using a closed-loop system identification method originally applied to human postural control by another group. To identify the plant, which was operationally defined as the mapping from muscle activation (rectified EMG signals) to body segment angles, we rotated the visual scene about the(More)
We examined the generally held belief that the postural control system is able to re-weight its available sensory inputs in order to optimize stance control in altered sensory environments. Our view is that previous accounts of sensory re-weighting provide only indirect evidence, which is subject to alternative explanations. The present results provide(More)
We analyze the stochastic structure of postural sway and demonstrate that this structure imposes important constraints on models of postural control. Linear stochastic models of various orders were fit to the center-of-mass trajectories of subjects during quiet stance in four sensory conditions: (i) light touch and vision, (ii) light touch, (iii) vision,(More)
Postural sway is considered to have two fundamental stochastic components, a slow nonoscillatory component and a faster damped-oscillatory component. The slow component has been shown to account for the majority of sway variance during quiet stance. Postural control is generally viewed as a feedback loop in which sway is detected by sensory systems and(More)
The problem of how the nervous system fuses sensory information from multiple modalities for upright stance control remains largely unsolved. It is well established that the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory modalities provide position and rate (e.g., velocity, acceleration) information for estimation of body dynamics. However, it is unknown whether any(More)