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We describe a classification scheme for bursting oscillations which encompasses many of those found in the literature on bursting in excitable media. This is an extension of the scheme of Rinzel (in Mathematical Topics in Population Biology, Springer, Berlin, 1987), put in the context of a sequence of horizontal cuts through a two-parameter bifurcation(More)
We analyze the stochastic structure of postural sway and demonstrate that this structure imposes important constraints on models of postural control. Linear stochastic models of various orders were fit to the center-of-mass trajectories of subjects during quiet stance in four sensory conditions: (i) light touch and vision, (ii) light touch, (iii) vision,(More)
Human movement control is inherently stochastic, requiring continuous estimation of self-motion based upon noisy sensory inputs. The nervous system must determine which sensory signals are relevant on a time scale that enables successful behavior. In human stance control, failure to effectively adapt to changing sensory contexts could lead to injurious(More)
When standing quietly, human upright stance is typically approximated as a single segment inverted pendulum. In contrast, investigations which perturb upright stance with support surface translations or visual driving stimuli have shown that the body behaves like a two-segment pendulum, displaying both in-phase and anti-phase patterns between the upper and(More)
A fundamental issue in motor control is how to determine the task goals for a given behavior. Here, we address this question by separately identifying the musculoskeletal and feedback components of the human postural control loop. Eighteen subjects were perturbed by two mechanical perturbations (gentle pulling from behind at waist and shoulder levels) and(More)
Despite extensive research on the influence of visual, vestibular and somatosensory information on human postural control, it remains unclear how these sensory channels are fused for self-orientation. The focus of the present study was to test whether a linear additive model could account for the fusion of touch and vision for postural control. We(More)
This study tested the hypotheses that all major joints along the longitudinal axis of the body are equally active during quiet standing and that their motions are coordinated to stabilize the spatial positions of the center of mass (CM) and head. Analyses of the effect of joint configuration variance on the stability of the CM and head positions were(More)
We determined properties of the plant during human upright stance using a closed-loop system identification method originally applied to human postural control by another group. To identify the plant, which was operationally defined as the mapping from muscle activation (rectified EMG signals) to body segment angles, we rotated the visual scene about the(More)
The problem of how the nervous system fuses sensory information from multiple modalities for upright stance control remains largely unsolved. It is well established that the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory modalities provide position and rate (e.g., velocity, acceleration) information for estimation of body dynamics. However, it is unknown whether any(More)
Recent models of human postural control have focused on the nonlinear properties inherent to fusing sensory information from multiple modalities. In general, these models are underconstrained, requiring additional experimental data to clarify the properties of such nonlinearities. Here we report an experiment suggesting that new or multiple mechanisms may(More)