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Thiol-activated cytolysins share a conserved hydrophobic, Trp-rich undecapeptide that is suggested to be involved in membrane binding and intercalation. The neutralizing monoclonal antibody PLY-5 recognizes all members of this toxin family and peptide mapping assigned its epitope to the undecapeptide motif. This antibody inhibited binding of the toxins to(More)
Listeriolysin O (LLO) binds to cholesterol-containing membranes in which it oligomerizes to form pores. Preincubation of the toxin with cholesterol is known to inhibit haemolysis, whereas the oxidized form of cholesterol has no inhibitory effect. Using immunoblot analyses and flow cytometry we demonstrate that preincubation with cholesterol does not(More)
We consider a particle dragged through a medium at constant temperature as described by a Langevin equation with a time-dependent potential. The time dependence is specified by an external protocol. We give conditions on potential and protocol under which the fluctuations of the dissipative work satisfy an exact symmetry for all times. We also present(More)
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential for resolution of infections with Listeria monocytogenes. The present study investigated the role of the listerial exotoxins listeriolysin (LLO) and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA) in human neutrophil activation. Different Listeria strains, mutated in individual virulence genes, as well(More)
Protection against intracellular pathogens is usually mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Induction of a protective CTL response for vaccination purposes has proven difficult because of the limited access of protein antigens or attenuated pathogens to the MHC class I presentation pathway. We show here that pH-sensitive PE/CHEMS liposomes can be used(More)
Three cell wall-associated protein antigens (antigens b, c, and d) were isolated from mutanolysin-solubilized cell walls of Streptococcus salivarius HB and purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and immunoadsorption chromatography. Antigens b and c were also isolated from culture supernatants.(More)
We present and analyze a simple and general scheme to build a churn (fault)-tolerant structured Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network. Our scheme shows how to “convert” a static network into a dynamic distributed hash table(DHT)-based P2P network such that all the good properties of the static network are guaranteed with high probability (w.h.p). Applying our scheme(More)
In mammals, the neuropeptide galanin exerts a variety of physiological roles in the neuroendocrine system through its interactions with three galanin receptor subtypes (GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3). However, little is known about the characteristics of galanin receptors in birds, and it is only recently that avian GalR1 and a novel GalR1-like receptor were first(More)
The discussion on time-reversal in quantum mechanics exists at least since Wigner’s paper [17] in 1932. If and how the dynamics of the quantum world is time-reversible has been the subject of many controversies. Some have seen quantum mechanics as fundamentally time-irreversible, see for example von Neumann [16, p. 358], and some have seen in that the(More)
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