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The proteins encoded by the classical HLA class I and class II genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic and are essential in self versus non-self immune recognition. HLA variation is a crucial determinant of transplant rejection and susceptibility to a large number of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Yet identification(More)
Results from two studies have implicated the interferon regulatory gene IRF5 as a susceptibility gene in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we conducted a family-based association analysis in 380 UK SLE nuclear families. Using a higher density of markers than has hitherto been screened, we show that there is association with two SNPs in the(More)
OBJECTIVE There is increasing evidence that variation in gene copy number (CN) influences clinical phenotype. The low-affinity Fcgamma receptor 3B (FCGR3B) located in the FCGR gene cluster is a CN polymorphic gene involved in the recruitment to sites of inflammation and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Given recent evidence that low(More)
To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies(More)
We previously established an 80 kb haplotype upstream of TNFSF4 as a susceptibility locus in the autoimmune disease SLE. SLE-associated alleles at this locus are associated with inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischaemic stroke. In Europeans, the TNFSF4 causal variants have remained elusive due to strong linkage disequilibrium exhibited(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate FCGR3B copy number variation (CNV) in African and European populations and to determine if FCGR3B copy number is associated with SLE and SLE nephritis risk in Afro-Caribbeans, adjusting for African genetic ancestry. METHODS We estimated FCGR3B to determine if there were ethnic variations in CNV (unrelated unadmixed Europeans and(More)
BACKGROUND Brachydactyly type A2 (BDA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder. It was recently reported that a 5.9 kb duplication and a 5.5 kb duplication in the region 20p12.2-12.3 are associated with BDA2 in two European families. OBJECTIVE To characterise a 6-generation Chinese family with 16 members affected by BDA2 and map the gene to 20p12.2-12.3. (More)
Lupus nephritis is a manifestation of SLE resulting from glomerular immune complex deposition and inflammation. Lupus nephritis demonstrates familial aggregation and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. We completed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of SLE to identify lupus nephritis-predisposing loci. Through genotyping(More)
In a randomised, double-blind, crossover study, single oral doses of cromakalim, a potassium-channel activator, or placebo were given to 23 patients with nocturnal asthma. There was a significant reduction (p less than 0.005) in the early morning fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after 0.5 mg cromakalim (fall 9.8% [SEM 3.2%]) compared with(More)
Efforts to identify lupus-associated causal variants in the FAM167A/BLK locus on 8p21 are hampered by highly associated noncausal variants. In this report, we used a trans-population mapping and sequencing strategy to identify a common variant (rs922483) in the proximal BLK promoter and a tri-allelic variant (rs1382568) in the upstream alternative BLK(More)