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The proteins encoded by the classical HLA class I and class II genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic and are essential in self versus non-self immune recognition. HLA variation is a crucial determinant of transplant rejection and susceptibility to a large number of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Yet identification(More)
To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies(More)
Understanding the pathogenesis of SLE remains a considerable challenge. Multiple abnormalities of both the innate and adaptive immune system have been described and, furthermore, immunological dysfunction precedes clinical presentation by many years. There is a strong genetic basis to SLE, which means that genetic studies can play a key role in furthering(More)
OBJECTIVES This is a family-based association study to investigate the genetic contribution of tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2 ) to disease susceptibility in 380 UK systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) families, consisting of parents and affected offspring. METHODS Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom platform on DNA from affected individuals and their(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate FCGR3B copy number variation (CNV) in African and European populations and to determine if FCGR3B copy number is associated with SLE and SLE nephritis risk in Afro-Caribbeans, adjusting for African genetic ancestry. METHODS We estimated FCGR3B to determine if there were ethnic variations in CNV (unrelated unadmixed Europeans and(More)
We previously established an 80 kb haplotype upstream of TNFSF4 as a susceptibility locus in the autoimmune disease SLE. SLE-associated alleles at this locus are associated with inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischaemic stroke. In Europeans, the TNFSF4 causal variants have remained elusive due to strong linkage disequilibrium exhibited(More)
Defining the polymorphisms that contribute to the development of complex genetic disease traits is a challenging, although increasingly tractable problem. Historically, the technical difficulties in conducting association studies across the entire human genome are such that murine models have been used to generate candidate genes for analysis in human(More)
Osteoporosis can arise in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients secondary to medication and/or chronic inflammation. To analyze if patients with SLE have phenotypically-impaired osteoclastogenesis, we differentiated ex vivo monocytes from 72 SLE patients and 15 healthy individuals into osteoclasts followed by TRAP staining and counting. We identified(More)
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