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OBJECTIVE Voxel-based morphometry is a method for detecting group differences in the density or volume of brain matter. The authors reviewed the literature on use of voxel-based morphometry in schizophrenia imaging research to examine the capabilities of this method for clearly identifying specific structural differences in patients with schizophrenia,(More)
This review highlights the importance of right hemisphere language functions for successful social communication and advances the hypothesis that the core deficit in psychosis is a failure of segregation of right from left hemisphere functions. Lesion studies of stroke patients and dichotic listening and functional imaging studies of healthy people have(More)
Gyrification, the developmental buckling of the cortex, is not a random process-the forces that mediate expansion do so in such a way as to generate consistent patterns of folds across individuals and even species. Although the origin of these forces is unknown, some theories have suggested that they may be related to external cortical factors such as(More)
How differences between the two sides of the brain (or 'laterality') relate to level of function are important components of theories of the origin and purpose of hemispheric asymmetry, although different measures show different relationships, and this heterogeneity makes discerning any underlying relationships a difficult task. There are some exceptions,(More)
OBJECTIVES Anomalies of asymmetry and sex differences in brain structure have frequently been described in schizophrenic illnesses but have seldom been explored in bipolar disorder. METHODS We measured volumes of the left and right frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes and computed the magnitude of brain torque (i.e., rightward frontal and(More)
In this paper, we draw a link between cortical intrinsic curvature and the distributions of tangential connection lengths. We suggest that differential rates of surface expansion not only lead to intrinsic curvature of the cortical sheet, but also to differential inter-neuronal spacing. We propose that there follows a consequential change in the profile of(More)
Two catecholamine-containing pathways, the locus ceruleus system and the dopamine neurons arising from the ventral mid-brain, may be involved in reward. Dopamine neurons function as a system for energizing the organism's responses and directing them toward significant environmental stimuli, but the functions of the locus ceruleus system remain obscure. It(More)
Protocadherins 11X and 11Y are cell adhesion molecules of the δ1-protocadherin family. Pcdh11X is present throughout the mammalian radiation; however, 6 million years ago (MYA), a reduplicative translocation of the Xq21.3 block onto what is now human Yp11 created the Homo sapiens-specific PCDH11Y. Therefore, modern human females express PCDH11X whereas(More)