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Protein phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in the control of neurotransmitter release and various forms of synaptic plasticity. The PKC substrates responsible for phosphorylation-dependent changes in regulated exocytosis in vivo have not been identified. Munc18a is essential for neurotransmitter release by exocytosis and can be(More)
Homeostatic scaling allows neurons to alter synaptic transmission to compensate for changes in network activity. Here, we show that suppression of network activity with tetrodotoxin, which increases surface expression of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), dramatically reduces levels of the deSUMOylating (where SUMO is small ubiquitin-like modifier) enzyme SENP1,(More)
Multiple pathways participate in the AMPA receptor trafficking that underlies long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission. Here we demonstrate that protein SUMOylation is required for insertion of the GluA1 AMPAR subunit following transient glycine-evoked increase in AMPA receptor surface expression (ChemLTP) in dispersed neuronal cultures.(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels couple cell metabolism to electrical activity by regulating K(+) fluxes across the plasma membrane. Channel closure is facilitated by ATP, which binds to the pore-forming subunit (Kir6.2). Conversely, channel opening is potentiated by phosphoinositol bisphosphate (PIP(2)), which binds to Kir6.2 and reduces channel(More)
Protein SUMOylation is a critically important posttranslational protein modification that participates in nearly all aspects of cellular physiology. In the nearly 20 years since its discovery, SUMOylation has emerged as a major regulator of nuclear function, and more recently, it has become clear that SUMOylation has key roles in the regulation of protein(More)
Increased protein phosphorylation enhances exocytosis in most secretory cell types, including neurones. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this occurs and the specific protein targets remain unclear. Munc18-1/nSec1 is essential for exocytosis in neurones, and is known to be phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro at Ser-313. This(More)
PKC (protein kinase C) has been known for many years to modulate regulated exocytosis in a wide variety of cell types. In neurons and neuroendocrine cells, PKC regulates several different stages of the exocytotic process, suggesting that these multiple actions of PKC are mediated by phosphorylation of distinct protein targets. In recent years, a variety of(More)
SUR1 is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with a novel function. In contrast to other ABC proteins, it serves as the regulatory subunit of an ion channel. The ATP-sensitive (KATP) channel is an octameric complex of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four regulatory SUR1 subunits, and it links cell metabolism to electrical activity in many cell(More)
Protein-protein interactions, and the factors affecting them, are of fundamental importance to all biological systems. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITR) are powerful methods for assaying such interactions, but are expensive to implement. In contrast, bead-based pull-down assays using affinity tags such as(More)
Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminal is under very precise spatial and temporal control. Following neurotransmitter release, synaptic vesicles are recycled by endocytosis and refilled with neurotransmitter. During the exocytosis event leading to release, SNARE proteins provide most of the mechanical force for membrane fusion. Here, we show(More)