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The aim of the Task Force was to derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing(More)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition, Do it (MEND) Program, a multicomponent community-based childhood obesity intervention (www.mendcentral.org). One hundred and sixteen obese children (BMI >or= 98 th percentile, UK 1990 reference data) were randomly assigned to intervention or waiting list control(More)
RATIONALE The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) reference is currently recommended for interpreting spirometry results, but it is limited by the lack of subjects younger than 8 years and does not continuously model spirometry across all ages. OBJECTIVES By collating pediatric data from other large-population surveys, we(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to define reference ranges for pulse oxygen saturation (Spo(2)) values in the first 10 minutes after birth for infants who received no medical intervention in the delivery room. METHODS Infants were eligible if a member of the research team was available to record Spo(2) immediately after birth. Infants were excluded if they(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare changes over time in waist circumference (a measure of central fatness) and body mass index (a measure of overall obesity) in British youth. DESIGN Representative cross sectional surveys in 1977, 1987, and 1997. SETTING Great Britain. PARTICIPANTS Young people aged 11-16 years surveyed in 1977 (boys) and 1987 (girls) for the(More)
BACKGROUND Osteoporosis may be prevented or delayed by maximizing peak bone mass through diet modification and physical activity during adolescence. OBJECTIVE We studied whether increases in calcium intake and physical activity effectively increase the bone mineral status of adolescent girls aged 16-18 y. DESIGN We conducted a 15.5-mo study of calcium(More)
BACKGROUND Growth curve analysis is a statistical issue in life course epidemiology. Height in puberty involves a growth spurt, the timing and intensity of which varies between individuals. Such data can be summarized with individual Preece-Baines (PB) curves, and their five parameters then related to earlier exposures or later outcomes. But it involves(More)
Renal parenchymal disease after urinary tract infection (UTI) has been associated with the development of hypertension and renal functional impairment. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed to determine how effectively the finding of primary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) on micturating cystography (MCU) in children hospitalized with(More)
OBJECTIVE Previous data indicate a rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight among English children and an emerging socioeconomic gradient in prevalence. The main aim of this study was to update the prevalence trends among school-age children and assess the changing socioeconomic gradient. DESIGN A series of nationally representative(More)
Low birth weight, a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, is caused by different factors in Western and developing-country populations. In addition to differing in terms of ethnicity, maternal size, maternal nutritional status, and disease load, developing-country and Western populations are also characterized by different environmental heat loads.(More)