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OBJECTIVE To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. DESIGN International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. SETTING Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands,(More)
Refence centile curves show the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariate, often age. The LMS method summarizes the changing distribution by three curves representing the median, coefficient of variation and skewness, the latter expressed as a Box-Cox power. Using penalized likelihood the three curves can be fitted as cubic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in British young people (4-18 years) in 1997. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people. SETTING Great Britain. SUBJECTS Nationally representative sample of 1836 young people (age 4-18 years). RESULTS The prevalence of obesity based on(More)
BACKGROUND In animals, acceleration of neonatal growth is thought to increase the later propensity to insulin resistance and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, whereas slow growth as a consequence of undernutrition is thought to have a beneficial effect. To test this hypothesis in people, we measured fasting concentrations of 32-33 split proinsulin, a marker(More)
European height and weight growth charts commonly extend from the 3rd to the 97th centile, whereas in North America the extremes are usually the 5th and 95th centiles. There is no good reason for the difference, and neither chart is particularly useful for screening owing to the high false positive rate associated with a cut off based on the lowest centile.(More)
BACKGROUND Growth curve analysis is a statistical issue in life course epidemiology. Height in puberty involves a growth spurt, the timing and intensity of which varies between individuals. Such data can be summarized with individual Preece-Baines (PB) curves, and their five parameters then related to earlier exposures or later outcomes. But it involves(More)
424 preterm infants were randomly assigned a standard "term" formula or a nutrient-enriched "preterm" formula as sole diets (trial A) or as supplements to mother's own expressed milk (trial B) for a median of 4 weeks postnatally. 18 months post term, blind evaluation of 377 survivors showed that those previously fed preterm rather than term formula had(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe levels of physical activity, sedentary time and adherence to Chief Medical Officers (CMO) physical activity guidelines among primary school-aged children across the UK using objective accelerometer-based measurements. DESIGN Nationally representative prospective cohort study. SETTING Children born across the UK, between 2000 and(More)