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OBJECTIVE To develop an internationally acceptable definition of child overweight and obesity, specifying the measurement, the reference population, and the age and sex specific cut off points. DESIGN International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional growth studies. SETTING Brazil, Great Britain, Hong Kong, the Netherlands,(More)
Objective To determine cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents, based on body mass index at age 18 years. Design International survey of six large nationally representative cross sectional studies on growth. Subjects 97 876 males and 94 851 females from birth to 25 years. Main outcome measure Body mass index (BMI, weight/ height 2). Results(More)
Refence centile curves show the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariate, often age. The LMS method summarizes the changing distribution by three curves representing the median, coefficient of variation and skewness, the latter expressed as a Box-Cox power. Using penalized likelihood the three curves can be fitted as cubic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in British young people (4-18 years) in 1997. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of young people. SETTING Great Britain. SUBJECTS Nationally representative sample of 1836 young people (age 4-18 years). RESULTS The prevalence of obesity based on(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether perinatal nutrition influences cognitive function at 7 1/2 - 8 years in children born preterm. DESIGN Randomised, blinded nutritional intervention trial. Blinded follow up at 7 1/2 - 8 years. SETTING Intervention phase in two neonatal units; follow up in a clinic or school setting. SUBJECTS 424 preterm infants who(More)
We explored the relationship between growth in tooth root length and the modern human extended period of childhood. Tooth roots provide support to counter chewing forces and so it is advantageous to grow roots quickly to allow teeth to erupt into function as early as possible. Growth in tooth root length occurs with a characteristic spurt or peak in rate(More)
The current reference curves of stature and weight for the UK were first published in 1966 and have been used ever since despite increasing concern that they may not adequately describe the growth of present day British children. Using current data from seven sources new reference curves have been estimated from birth to 20 years for children in 1990. The(More)
There is considerable controversy over whether nutrition in early life has a long-term influence on neurodevelopment. We have shown previously that, in preterm infants, mother's choice to provide breast milk was associated with higher developmental scores at 18 months. We now report data on intelligence quotient (IQ) in the same children seen at 7 1/2-8(More)