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If asked whether certain digits in numbers collected randomly from, for example, the front pages of newspapers or from stock-market prices should occur more often than others, most people would think not. Nonetheless, in 1881, the astronomer and mathematician Simon Newcomb published a two-page article in the American Journal of Mathematics reporting an(More)
I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50-150 keV. The beam energy enables(More)
The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is(More)
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Health care reform around the world is born in considerable measure of the need to reconcile our growing capacity to provide effective health care with diminishing economic means to sustain this capacity indefinitely. It is precisely under these circumstances that the conflict between individual rights to health care and the state's responsibilities to(More)
In efforts to modernise the entire drug-development process, making it more efficient, less costly, and ultimately of real benefit to patients, The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) authorised the use of exploratory IND or early Phase I (Phase 0) studies. Quite different in structure from Phase I, II, and III studies, the Phase 0 construct understandably(More)