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The authors review and summarize evidence for the process of acquisition of information outside of conscious awareness (covariations, nonconscious indirect and interactive inferences, self-perpetuation of procedural knowledge). Data indicate that as compared with consciously controlled cognition, the nonconscious information-acquisition processes are not(More)
It was hypothesized that encoding (interpretive) biases may develop in a self-perpetuating manner through biased, self-supportive encoding (even in the absence of any objectively supportive evidence). This process was investigated in 3 experiments with different stimulus materials (matrices of digits, silhouettes of persons, descriptions of personal(More)
Indirect (transitive) inference (i.e., if A is related to B, and B is related to C, then C is related to A) is a ubiquitous component of thinking and reasoning. This research demonstrates that a mechanism at least functionally similar to drawing indirect inferences can also be observed in unintentional processes of encoding. The 2 studies followed the same(More)
The process of encoding new information involves the imposition of preexisting interpretive categories on newly encountered stimuli, even if the categories do not match perfectly those stimuli. We hypothesized that such encoding of stimuli as supportive of preexisting encoding dispositions may become a source of a perceiver's subjective experiences that(More)
H. Hendrickx, J. De Houwer, F. Baeyens, P. Eelen, and E. Van Avermaet (1997) reported a series of (mostly unsuccessful) studies on nonconscious hidden covariation detection (HCD); for example, they reported that out of 3 attempts to replicate P. Lewicki et al.'s studies, only 1 produced the expected results. They concluded that HCD may be not as general and(More)
Two issues are discussed. The first one pertains to the generality of the nonconscious learning processes and their somewhat paradoxical status in cognitive psychology. We argue that the ability of the human cognitive system to nonconsciously acquire complex knowledge structures is one of its elementary and indispensable properties. Moreover, the existence(More)