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OBJECTIVES This study was undertaken to determine whether reductions in alcohol-related fatal crashes following adoption of 0.08% legal blood alcohol limits were independent of general regional trends. METHODS The first five states that lowered legal blood alcohol limits to 0.08% were paired with five nearby states that retained a 0.10% legal standard.(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study ws to assess whether a community program begun in March 1988 that organized multiple city departments and private citizens could reduce alcohol-impaired driving, related driving risks, and traffic deaths and injuries. METHODS Trends in fatal crashes and injuries per 100 crashes were compared in Saving Lives Program(More)
Studies have shown that rates of liver disease are higher in persons who are coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) than they are in persons with HCV alone, but estimates of risk vary widely and are based on data for dissimilar patient populations. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the effect of HIV coinfection(More)
We examined the relation between acculturation and illicit drug use among Hispanics in the United States employing data from the 1982-84 Hispanic Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (HHANES). Across all Hispanic groups, acculturation into US society, as reflected in English language use, was associated with higher rates of illicit drug use even after(More)
Relational agents—computational artifacts designed to build and maintain long-term social-emotional relationships with users—may provide an effective interface modality for older adults. This is especially true when the agents use simulated face-to-face conversation as the primary communication medium, and for applications in which repeated interactions(More)
BACKGROUND Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the(More)
BACKGROUND The present study was aimed at (1) exploring evidence of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction among Gulf War (GW) veterans on neuropsychological tests and (2) examining whether performance on neuropsychological tests was related to specific neurotoxicant exposures experienced in the Gulf. METHODS The GW-deployed groups were selected using(More)
This study examined how maternal distress mediates the link between exposure to community violence (CV) and the development of early child behavior problems. Research was conducted among 160 children, 3,0 to 5,11 in age, who resided in high-crime neighborhoods. Using structural equation modeling, latent variables were constructed to identify model(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), or the interaction between PCE and contextual variables, is associated with children's language at age 6 and 9.5 years, adjusting for relevant covariates. METHODS Analyses were based on 160 low-income, urban children from a prospective study who completed a standardized language assessment at(More)
The risk of developing esophageal cancer in Barrett's esophagus has been estimated at about 10%. This estimate is based primarily on data concerning the prevalence of that association in series of hospitalized patients and autopsies--a practice that tends to exaggerate the risk. We have reviewed retrospectively our experience with 115 patients whom we(More)